The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a global challenge for managing acutely ill patients and complications from viral infection. Systemic inflammation accompanied by a “cytokine storm,” hemostasis alterations and severe vasculitis have all been reported to occur with COVID-19, and emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of lipid transport may contribute to some of these complications. Here, we aim to summarize the current understanding of the potential mechanisms related to COVID-19 dyslipidemia and propose possible adjunctive type therapeutic approaches that modulate lipids and lipoproteins. Specifically, we hypothesize that changes in the quantity and composition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that occurs with COVID-19 can significantly decrease the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions of HDL and could contribute to pulmonary inflammation. Furthermore, we propose that lipoproteins with oxidized phospholipids and fatty acids could lead to virus-associated organ damage via overactivation of innate immune scavenger receptors. Restoring lipoprotein function with ApoA-I raising agents or blocking relevant scavenger receptors with neutralizing antibodies could, therefore, be of value in the treatment of COVID-19. Finally, we discuss the role of omega-3 fatty acids transported by lipoproteins in generating specialized proresolving mediators and how together with anti-inflammatory drugs, they could decrease inflammation and thrombotic complications associated with COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; dyslipidemia; inflammation; lipoproteins; oxidation.
Full Article : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361619/