Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
The chronic and low-grade inflammation induced by obesity seem to be the “first hit” to retinopathy associated to diabetes type 2. Herein, we hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil enriched diet disrupt the pro-inflammatory status in the retina, protecting against retinopathy development. For eight weeks under a high-fat diet (HF), several physiological parameters were monitored to follow the metabolic homeostasis disruption. After this period, mice were treated with a HF substituted in part of lard by flaxseed oil (FS) for another eight weeks. Food behavior, weight gain, glucose and insulin sensitivity, electroretinography, RT-qPCR and western blots were carried out. The HF was able to induce a pro-inflammatory background in the retina, changing IL1β and TNFα. VEGF, a master piece of retinopathy, had early onset increased also induced by HF. The FS-diet was able to decrease inflammation and retinopathy and improved retinal electro stimuli compared to HF group. GPR120 and GPR40 (G Protein-Coupled Receptors 120 and 40), an omega-3 fatty acid receptors, were detected in the retina for the first time. FS-diet modulated the gene expression and protein content of these receptors. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids protect the retina from diabetes type 2 mice model from disease progression.