Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases.
Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26878783/
Flax seed oil and flax seed meal reduce the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in Fisher 344 male rats
Flax seed oil and flax seed meal are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The objective of this study was to explicate the effects of feeding flax seed oil and flax seed meal on AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats. Following an acclimatization period, rats were divided into six groups and fed AIN 93G diet Control (C), C+7 and 14% soybean oil (SBO), C+7 and 14% flax seed oil (FSO) and C+10 and 20% flax seed meal (FSM). All rats received 16 mg/kg body weight of AOM at 7 and 8 weeks of age. The rats were euthanized with CO2 at 17 weeks of age. FSM and FSO reduced the incidence of ACF which are putative precursor lesions in the development of colon cancer in the distal colon by 88% and 77%, in the proximal colon by 86% and 87% with a total reduction of 87.5% and 84%, respectively. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher in rats fed C+7 and 14% FSO and C+10 and 20% FSM, as compared to rats fed C+SBO diets. Results of this study showed that FSO and FSM reduced the incidence of AOM-induced ACF formation and may therefore be effective chemopreventive agents.