THORSTEN LUDVIG THUNBERG

(A father of Biological pH)

(b. Torsaker, Sweden, 30 June 1873; d. Lund, Sweden, 4 December 1952)

Physiology.

The son of Per Erik Thunberg, a merchant, and of Wendela Maria Elisabeth Hård, Thunberg studied medicine at the University of Uppsala from 1891 to 1900 and obtained the M.D. degree with a dissertation on epidermal sensory perception. He was demonstrator for Olof Hammarsten at the Institute of Physiological Chemistry in 1893–1894 and for Frithiof Holmgren at the Institute of Physiology at Uppsala in 1894–1896. He was reader in physiology at Uppsala in 1897–1904. Immediately after the death of Magnus Blix in 1904, Thunberg went to Lund as temporary occupant of the chair of physiology and embryology; the following year he was appointed to the chair of physiology, from which he retired in 1938.

Thunbergs first work, on sensory physiology, was published in 1893 and his last, in 1953. Thunberg extensively studied the physiology of epidermal sensations, showing, among other things, that a pinprick gives rise to two sensations of pain, the second occurring some seconds after the first. This phenomenon was interpreted much later by Zotter-man, who demonstrated the existence of two groups of pain fibers, one of which transmits impulses more slowly than the other. In 1905 Thunberg wrote the chapter “Physiologie der Druck-, Temperatur- und Schmerzempfindungen” for Nagel’s Handhuch der Physiologie des Menschen. With this work he left a field into which he had been led more by chance than by ability.

In 1903, when Thunberg began to study the elementary processes of metabolism–studies that constitute his major contributions to science–nothing was known of the oxidation processes in the tissue cells. Energy is derived in the cells by combustion (cellular respiration), whereby oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide produced. Lavoisier had proved that respiration is chemically a combustion process in the 1770’s. From then until 1875, the consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide were thought to be confined to the lungs and the blood. In that year Pflüger proclaimed: “Cells are constantly burning, although we do not see their light with our weak vision.” Everyday experience shows that organic material does not burn in oxygen at body temperature, so it was assumed that oxygen was activated in some way. From about 1840 a series of oxygen activation theories appeared: but valid knowledge had to await the work of Thunberg, Otto Warburg, and Heinrich Wieland. Warburg introduced the term Atmungsferment and argued that this enzyme that catalyzed oxidation was an iron-pyrrole complex. His idea was based on the orthodox concept that the degradation and combustion of food to carbon dioxide and water took place through the direct attack of oxygen on the carbon atoms of the food. Thunberg and Wieland developed an entirely new conception, rivaling that of Warburg.

In 1908 Thunberg began to study the capacity of cells to burn various organic acids, including acetic, propionic, oxalic, malic, succinic, and citric. These acids were not then recognized as normal constituents of the body that played a role in intracellular metabolism; rather, they were known as products of putrefaction or fermentation. From among all the organic acids Thunberg chose precisely those that proved useful to his aims, thus revealing his unerring sense for the right path to follow.

Wieland turned to this area of investigation just when his cooperation was needed to elucidate the nature of the processes of biological oxidation. In 1912 he found that organic compounds can be oxidized through removal of hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst and that the hydrogen can be taken up by suitable acceptors, such as methylene blue. From 1910 Thunberg integrated Wieland’s discoveries with his own, especially those on the biological oxidation of succinate, and initiated the concept of the specific, hydrogen-activating, chain-forming enzyme systems. When Thunberg began this work, all that was known of intracellular enzymes was merely that postmortem autolysis was catalyzed by proteolytic enzymes. Oxidases also had been found.

Thunberg saw that the oxidation of succinate was initiated by an agent in the cells that endowed a hydrogen group in the succinate with a reactivity that it had not previously possessed. The reactivity could easily be demonstrated with methylene blue, which was decolorized by hydrogen uptake. Under the influence of this agent in the cells, the succinate emerged as “hydrogen donator” and released a hydrogen group to the “hydrogen acceptor” methylene blue. The terms “donator” and “acceptor” were introduced by Thunberg and are now in general use. He called the enzymatic agent a dehydrogenase, in this case succinate dehydrogenase. The introduction of the methylene blue method in 1916 opened up a worldwide search for dehydrogenases. The chainlike degradation of the various organic molecules in the organism could now be charted.

Thunberg finally formulated the following generalization concerning the oxidative degradation of food: the degradation is accomplished by a chain of consecutive splittings of hydrogen atoms carried out by a series of dehydrogenases, each with a specific purpose.

With the discovery of a hydrogen-carrying flavo-protein, das gelbe Atmungsferment, Warburg in 1932 contributed substantially to Thunberg’s conception of hydrogen transport from one system to another as a central mechanism in oxidative metabolism. Thunberg rightfully considered himself responsible for a revolution in the concept of the mechanism of biological oxidation.

In 1905, the year of his appointment to the chair of physiology at Lund, Thunberg recorded that nerve tissue respires, taking up oxygen and giving up carbon dioxide. It had previously been thought that nerve fibers conducted impulses like an electric cable, without measurable energy consumption. Thunberg made this discovery with his micro-respirometer, an ingenious device with which he could measure oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in small units of tissue. Using this apparatus, he also could demonstrate that traces of certain metals, such as manganese salts, strongly catalyze tissue respiration. This field held his interest throughout his retirement.

Although a scientist first, Thunberg was not unfamiliar with the nonscientific world. As a student at Uppsala he was associated with the radical-liberal group Verdandis, headed by the physiologist Hjalmar Öhrvall. During five decades– through books, popular journals, pamphlets, and the daily press, and as an adviser to the government–he disseminated information on hygiene and medicine that in scope and quality was unparalleled in Sweden.

Thunberg’s enormous capacity for work was combined with good health, and he reached the age of seventy before becoming seriously ill, with pneumonia, from which he recovered. He was fully active for more than nine years, until October 1952, when he stumbled over the doorstep of his house and broke his femur. Despite the best care, he died early in December. He had been elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1928, and later of many foreign learned societies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Obituaries include Georg Kahlson, “Thorsten Thunberg.” in Acta physiologica scandinavica30 (1953), supp. 1ll: and F. G. Young, “Prof. T. Thunberg,” in Nature (12 Dec. 1953).

Georg Kahlson

Source: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/thunberg-thorsten-ludvig

Related: http://chooselife.co.uk/index.php/2020/04/15/johanna-budwig-interview/

Cornerstones

These are steps, which if taken, may help recovery of the bodies abilities to utilise it’s elegant recovery mechanisms, to an elite level, relative to that which constrains us (age, history…).

1. First, the cornerstone for me:

Studies have shown, that Omega3 in various forms (Here is just a few days of searching the published medical papers for Flax), has a juggernaut of healing potential based in and around it.

My day, usually starts with 125g of Kefir Quark (called Kefir Protein in both Waitrose and M&S), blended with 62.5g of super fresh (very important as we’re dealing with Oxidation here) Flaxoil.

Above Picture, is when the Flaxoil is high lignan, if not the high lignan oil; then to be an official Budwig Breakfast, it should have freshly blended flax seeds.

This is blended with a hand blender, or whisk. Then I eat one spoonful alone, before having the rest with low glycemic fruit (Strawberries are my youngest daughters choice, Raspberries my eldest). Sometimes (almost always), I also have with this Planet Organic Paleo Vegan Granola:

Though this is not strictly Budwig kosher, if issues with Cancer or major illness I would not have this element personally.

This above step 1 is my absolute cornerstone with regards to fat metabolism, and protein intake, the sulfur rich proteins in the Kefir Quark has a natural affinity with the Flaxoil, which when blended make them water soluble, emulsify it to give a huge surface area, relative to having it just as an oil, a gestalt food where the sum exceeds the constituents hugely.

This is the foundation of Johanna Budwig’s research (the blend, forget the Granola), which she reported is the best was to re-ignite the Cell walls ability to take and carry Oxygen = Prevention of (or recovery from) Respiratory Acidosis.

2. Green Smoothies – This is a two form deal. Firstly, to explain; the greens in leaves n vegetables etc. Are very rich in Chlorophylls, the centre of which is Magnesium:

So, as we can see, as well as the Magnesium boost you get, you also get a pre-constructed shell your body can use to apply Iron and you have Hemoglobin, then you have the folates, the VitaminK (which microbes in your body may convert to K2 if you eat correctly) and on and on.

When studying diet types, it became clear that green smoothies, with some oil as much of the goodness is fat soluble, creates a sensational dynamic for our Liver/Pancreas/Digestion/Well-Being.

How many of us can truly say we eat enough greens?

So, at least once a day, lately, I am trying to have the following:

1/3-1/4 Bag of Organic mixed leaves (M&S is my choice here)
1/3 Cucumber
1/3 Avocado
1 Tsp of Norwegian Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum)
1 TBSP Flaxoil or Cold Pressed Organic Olive Oil
1 Small pinch of Epsom Salts
1 Tsp of Limewater or Calcium powder (I favour Min-Col, or, Cal II)
1 Handful of low Glycemic Fruit (Cherries today, very nice)
1 1/4 Lemon juice

Fill almost to top with clean water (I’ve got a distiller, but otherwise I like Evian, or Buxton is low Nitrate, Volvic is Silica rich and good if you have memory concerns), blend, and drink.

If no Lemon to hand, Apple Cider Vinegar, Raw with Mother, is an OK substitute, but Lemon is best IMO.

(Reams said the leaves and Olive Oil creates a gelatinous like substance to help lubricate our bowels, he advocated only a salad with olive oil for dinner, low late day protein to rest the body/liver/digestion and set yourself up for the following day, but this is a tough lifestyle adjustment to make, but dovetails research showing the autonomic nervous system needs to direct it’s juice to the Adrenals, key time 11pm-1am I believe, so it must be best to finish digesting proteins which take considerable oxygen, so it may direct it at your innate rest and repair cycles, such as recovering the adrenals, crucial in todays high processed, high refined, world)

3. Moreless Alkalising Drink:

1TBSP Limewater (This is Pickling Lime, but not sold in UK so make my own*)
1 TSP of Raw Honey (Organic, away from high pesticide areas), otherwise Unsulphured Molasses
3 TBSP Norwegian Kelp Powder
1 TBSP Apple Pectin
1/2 Cup Water
1/2 Juice Fresh Lemon
1 Pinch Epsom Salts

* This is made from Calcium Hydroxide, please understand not the powder itself, learn the method carefully, if not I have used Min-Col, Call II from Daily Manufacturing which are based on Reams teachings. Be Careful with Calcium!

Mix well, usually I mix this, except the lemon, leave it for an hour or two for the kelp and honey/molasses to fully mix easily, then juice in the lemon when I am to start sipping it. This is a high alkaline, and it is designed to be sipped upon hourly, to prop up your body (it’s well shown that most yeasts/viruses/bacteria/fungus of harmful nature are attracted to, and thrive, in more acidic terrain, mine runs acidic, my daughters when tested does, so this scales up as I see any of the multitude of signs for heightened acidity, in myself or my Girls, though my youngest rejects the Kelp as Yucky, but is fine with it without).

This above Alkaline mix, is the foundation of work, based upon studies of Biological Ionisation, which averts or prevents bodies which flirt with Metabolic Acidosis, Moreless would repeatedly say listen to your body and adjust up/down each ingredient, he rightly for his biochemistry expounded the virtues of all the trace minerals in Molasses, but I cannot tolerate that energetically so I use high, high quality raw organic honey, just enough to carry the Calciums and give a live Carbon bond to the otherwise slightly toxic hydroxide.

These are my foundations of well-being, on top of this, I try to eat as much fresh vegetables as I can. If we get to the stage that we are eating 50% raw fruit and vegetables (mainly veg, and low glycemic fruits), then we are giving such a rest to our Liver.

The above is a large part of the cornerstone of a diet, which if applied correctly, may help almost any illness, it is the foundational elements that the degradation of soil vitality and increasingly denatured living deprive us.

To be continued…

Omega-3 from Flaxseed Oil Protects Obese Mice Against Diabetic Retinopathy Through GPR120 Receptor

Marcella Neves DátiloMarcella Ramos Sant’AnaGuilherme Pedron FormigariPatrícia Brito RodriguesLeandro Pereira de MouraAdelino Sanchez Ramos da SilvaEduardo Rochete RopelleJosé Rodrigo PauliDennys Esper Cintra

Abstract

The chronic and low-grade inflammation induced by obesity seem to be the “first hit” to retinopathy associated to diabetes type 2. Herein, we hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil enriched diet disrupt the pro-inflammatory status in the retina, protecting against retinopathy development. For eight weeks under a high-fat diet (HF), several physiological parameters were monitored to follow the metabolic homeostasis disruption. After this period, mice were treated with a HF substituted in part of lard by flaxseed oil (FS) for another eight weeks. Food behavior, weight gain, glucose and insulin sensitivity, electroretinography, RT-qPCR and western blots were carried out. The HF was able to induce a pro-inflammatory background in the retina, changing IL1β and TNFα. VEGF, a master piece of retinopathy, had early onset increased also induced by HF. The FS-diet was able to decrease inflammation and retinopathy and improved retinal electro stimuli compared to HF group. GPR120 and GPR40 (G Protein-Coupled Receptors 120 and 40), an omega-3 fatty acid receptors, were detected in the retina for the first time. FS-diet modulated the gene expression and protein content of these receptors. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids protect the retina from diabetes type 2 mice model from disease progression.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30254287/

Choose Life Or Death

Carey A. Reams with Cliff Dudley

Choose-life-or-Death

Reams Biological Theory of Ionization

Understand what health is and what it means.
Understand levels of body chemistry using urine and saliva.
Understand the proper relationship of mental and spiritual aspects of
health relating to body chemistry.


Throughout his research, Dr. Reams discovered that only two bodily fluids were needed to show your body chemistry levels – saliva and urine. If a person keeps his numbers in the Perfect Health or Healing range – it is believed the human body will maintain health. If the human body in not kept in the Perfect Health or in the Healing range – it is believed the body becomes diseased. The great news in pH testing is that you can manipulate your balances by controlling what you put into your body.


REAMS testing, this is how it works.

¬ The Carbohydrate measurement is made with a refractometer and it measures the number of brix in a urine specimen. It also represents the amount of potential energy available per pound of body weight. The ideal carbohydrate measure is 1.5 brix. Healing range is 1.2-2.0 brix. Below 1.2 represents low blood sugar. 5.5 and above represents borderline diabetes.


¬ The pH is a measurement of resistance and indicates the speed at which energy is moving through the body. A reading of 6.4 is the ideal speed for energy to move through the body. The pH is written as a fraction. The top number is the urine pH and the bottom number is the saliva pH. Healing range is 6.2-6.6. If you add the urine pH number to two times the saliva pH number and divide by three – the results will yield your average bodily pH. This is helpful in analyzing the direction of the overall pH of your body. Urine pH provides information about the blood, saliva pH provides information about the liver.


¬ The Salt or conductivity reading is ideally 6-7C. The conductivity number indicates the
level of salts in the body. The salt number indicates whether the body has the correct
number of electrolytes. Electrolyte levels indicate whether the body is undercharging or
overcharging.


¬ Cell debris is an indication of the number of dead cells leaving the body. A sick body needs to rid itself of excess dead cells. The ideal cell debris number is .04M. The cell debris number tells how well the body is cooperating in the healing process. It is also the last number to come into balance.


¬ Urea readings are the Ammonia Nitrates and the Nitrate Nitrates added together. They equal the total ureas. Total ureas represent the total amount of unutilized protein that is being handled by the liver and sent to the kidneys for elimination.


¬ Cell Exchange Rate – Ultimately the entire body chemistry depends upon the correct cell
exchange rate. Homeostasis – a new healthy cell is produced for each old cell dying off. If any of the numbers are off, the cell exchange rate is off and cells are not getting produced to maintain homeostasis. There are three classes of cells: Alpha Cells – perfect whole cells, Delta Cells – damaged or dead cells ready to be replaced, and Omega Cells – dead cells clumping and sticking together. Good health demands an even exchange rate – dead cells out and new cells in. If any of the numbers in the equation are out of range then the delta cells are not leaving the body. Any time the cell exchange is off, there is a mineral problem in the body. The body is made of minerals…The dust of the earth…Minerals are the basis for good health…You cannot build healthy cells without minerals.


¬ Mineral Assimilation is determined by the pH of the digestive system. A second issue is the atomic number of each of the minerals. The higher the frequency, the more difficult it is to assimilate the particular mineral.


What does this test reveal?
Determines calcium needs for your body chemistry
Tells what you are digesting or not digesting
Tells if your body is assimilating nutrients
Shows vitamin and mineral deficiencies
Reveals if blood sugar is high, low or normal
Will show if your body is supporting excess yeast candidiasis) or parasites
Indicates if there is excess stress on internal organs such as the kidneys, liver, heart, colon or gall
bladder
Gives the health level of the liver and gall bladder
Reveals if your body’s environment may be supporting:
circulatory problems
high blood pressure
low blood pressure
arthritis
weight gain
high cholesterol
kidney/gall stones


PERFECT NUMBERS
Through extensive research, Dr. Carey Reams discovered the “perfect numbers” for Biological Ionization, which represent the ideal cellular resistance required for life, just as 98.6 degrees represents the perfect resistance (temperature) for a healthy body. The higher the resistance, the higher the temperature. The lower the resistance, the colder the temperature. Death may occur from either extreme.


ENERGY FROM FOOD
We do not live off the food we eat but off the energy produced by the food we eat. It is believed that we receive approximately 20% of our mineral energy from this digestive principal. Approximately 80% comes from the atmosphere. The more efficient the digestion, the more efficient the body is in extracting mineral energy from the air.

PREMATURE AGING
Resistance is required for life. An excess of resistance can result in disease and death. Likewise, a deficiency of resistance can also result in disease and death. Dr. Reams determined that each of the 7 parameters, when all occurring simultaneously, represents the perfect 100% Metabolism Efficiency (the conversion of food into energy). The theory being that, if one could maintain a lifestyle that continually manifested the “perfect numbers”, there would be no premature aging.


BIOLOGICAL IONIZATION
Of course there is no such perfect world, hence aging does occur. The objective, using “Reams Testing” as a guide, is to determine the proper lifestyle that allows a person to age, but not prematurely age. As the metabolism efficiency decreases, premature aging is more likely to occur, predisposing one to the disease process.
How are urine and saliva tests different than a blood test? According to Dr. Reams, the blood changes every 15 minutes. The urine and saliva test was found to be more accurate. The testing of these two substances is amazingly accurate in determining the degree of wellness one might be experiencing and importantly what minerals, vitamins, and foods one should or should not eat.
Biological Ionization Analysis is an excellent metabolic biofeedback device to indicate whether a particular lifestyle is beneficial or detrimental for any individual. It gives specific information on what vitamins and minerals are not being assimilated into the body’s cellular structure. It provides biofeedback on a holistic (emotional, physical, spiritual) level.

By Donald Kraus (Reams Practitioner) : http://www.bodylifedirect.com/

The omega-3 and retinopathy of prematurity relationship

Int J Ophthalmol. 2017

Angelakis Malamas,1 Angeliki Chranioti,2 Christos Tsakalidis,3 Stavros A Dimitrakos,4 and Asimina Mataftsi4

Abstract

The aim of this article is to examine the effect of omega-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) intake on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by reviewing the experimental and clinical trials conducted on animal models and infants. LCPUFAs demonstrate cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. Their intake appears to have a beneficial effect on ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular signaling mechanisms, influencing retinal cell gene expression and cellular differentiation. ω-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes that activate molecules implicated in the pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases such as ROP.

Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, omega-3.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5313556/

ChooseLife : Arya Fosh, my wonderful daughter, was born at 24 weeks and 0 days. She was born with a host of arrival injuries, she developed Retinopathy Of Prematurity due to the Oxygen support required through her Chronic Lung Disease (as our daughter was prone to desaturation often the Oxygen would be left high to stabilise and leave her on 100%, which our first Consultant at Portsmouth NICU had previously said (to a Junior Doctor in my earshot) was criminal and had stuck in my mind, due to the damage it does to the eyes development of the delicate blood vessels linking the retina, Stevie Wonders ‘blindness’ came from this dynamic), so I became very prickly with nurses more interested in chatting than ensuring that she did not sit at 100% on higher supplemental Oxygen, once leading to a full argument with a lazy nurse chatting about TV whilst my daughters eyes were being harmed by her shameful actions, she had the gall to say our concerns were unfounded as she was too old to develop ROP, she hadn’t even read the notes which stated she was Grade 2 progressive to grade 3! This was at Dorchester SCBU).

During this time her mother was plied with a plentiful supply of Omega3 via Fermented Cod Liver Oil and Butter Oil (Royal Ice), based on the studies of the Weston A. Price foundation. The 2:1 ratio of Omega6/Omega3 plus the Vitamin A content (in a 5:1 ratio with Vitamin A to D). This nourished our daughter via her mothers expressing milk, I am in no doubt.

We were told our daughter needed to be transferred to Southampton NICU, as her ROP was measured as grade 2 progressing towards grade 3 and eye surgery was required, this was another traumatic experience, as transferring our daughter caused desaturations and posed risk to her stability and life. Once we arrived, we were met by the Surgeon who performed a pre-surgery exam, the Surgeon reported to us that contrary to previous analysis our daughter was in fact healing and would not require surgery, a huge huge relief for us.

The surgeon stated that we must have good genes for Arya to be regressive and her eye health looked good, inside I knew it was the dietary support we had engaged which was at play, this study only goes to confirm this belief.

We were told she would never be 20:20 due to this dynamic, however she was classed as 20:20 by the age of 3!

Praise be to Omega 3! Arya will never be without it (though now via ultra fresh Flaxoil blended with Quark 1:2, as per Johanna Budwig’s sensational research).

Arya Fosh:

5 Days Old
Arya Aged 7 1/2

Magnesium and the parathyroid

Thorsten Vetter, Martin J Lohse

July 2002

Abstract

The serum levels of parathyroid hormone and magnesium depend on each other in a complex manner. The secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid is physiologically controlled by the serum calcium level, but magnesium can exert similar effects.

While low levels of magnesium stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion, very low serum concentrations induce a paradoxical block. This block leads to clinically relevant hypocalcemia in severely hypomagnesiemic patients.

The mechanism of this effect has recently been traced to an activation of the alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. This activation mimicks activation of the calcium sensing receptor and thus causes inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion.

In addition to the effects of magnesium on parathyroid hormone secretion, parathyroid hormone in turn regulates magnesium homeostasis by modulating renal magnesium reabsorption. The distal convoluted tubule is of crucial importance for parathyroid hormone-regulated magnesium homeostasis.

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12105390/

Impact of Magnesium Supplementation in Muscle Damage of Professional Cyclists Competing in a Stage Race

Alfredo CórdovaJuan Mielgo-AyusoEnrique RocheAlberto Caballero-GarcíaDiego Fernandez-Lázaro

August 2019

Abstract

Magnesium is a cofactor of different enzymatic reactions involved in anabolic and catabolic processes that affect muscular performance during exercise. In addition, it has been suggested that magnesium could participate in maintaining muscle integrity during demanding effort.

The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of magnesium supplementation in preventing muscle damage in professional cyclists taking part in a 21-day cycling stage race. Eighteen male professional cyclists (n = 18) from two teams were recruited to participate in the research.

They were divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 9) and the magnesium-supplemented group (n = 9). The supplementation consisted of an intake of 400 mg/day of magnesium during the 3 weeks of competition.

Blood samples were collected according to World Anti-Doping Agency rules at three specific moments during competition: immediately before the race; mid competition; and before the last stage. Levels of serum and erythrocyte magnesium, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, myoglobin, aldolase, total proteins, cortisol and creatinine were determined.

Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels decreased during the race. Circulating tissue markers increased at the end of the race in both groups. However, myoglobin increase was mitigated in the supplemented group compared with the controls. We conclude that magnesium supplementation seems to exert a protective effect on muscle damage.

Keywords: cycling; exercise; muscle damage; performance; supplementation.

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31426321/

ACTH, Cortisol and IL-6 Levels in Athletes following Magnesium Supplementation

November 2016

Gordana Dmitrašinović, Vesna Pešić, Dušanka Stanić, Bosiljka Plećaš-Solarović, Marijana Dajak, Svetlana Ignjatović 

Abstract

Background: Physical exercise activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and induces the body’s inflammatory response. Due to contemporary dietary habits and increased energy expenditure, athletes are susceptible to depletion of magnesium ions. The aim of our study was to investigate, through assessment of plasma ACTH, serum IL-6, and salivary/serum cortisol levels, if chronic magnesium supplementation might reduce damaging stress effects in amateur rugby players.

Methods: Rugby players (N=23) were randomly assigned to intervention and control group. Basal samples were collected before intervention group started a 4-week-long supplementation with magnesium (500 mg Mg/d). Blood and saliva sampling were done a day before the match (Day-1), on the morning of competition (Game), and during a six-day-long recovery period (Day1, Day3 and Day6). ACTH, serum/salivary cortisol, IL-6 and total/differential leukocytes counts were determined at each time point.

Results: There was a statistically significant increase in ACTH concentration in intervention group compared to control group, while reductions in cortisol concentrations between the two groups were the greatest at Day-1 (p < 0.01) and at the day of competition (Game) (p < 0.01). Our results revealed that magnesium completely abolished the increase in IL-6 level noted in control group on Day1 and Day3 vs. Day-1 (p < 0.01) and also diminished the rise in neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in intervention group vs. control group (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: These results suggest the possibly important influence magnesium supplementation might have on the change of parameters of HPA axis activity and reduction of immune response activation following strenuous physical exercise such as a rugby game.

Keywords: ACTH; IL-6; amateur rugby; magnesium supplementation; serum/saliva cortisol.

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28670189/