Summary : Body organs such as the intestine and ovaries undergo structural changes in response to dietary nutrients that can have lasting impacts on metabolism, as well as cancer susceptibility.
Body organs such as the intestine and ovaries undergo structural changes in response to dietary nutrients that can have lasting impacts on metabolism, as well as cancer susceptibility, according to Carnegie’s Rebecca Obniski, Matthew Sieber, and Allan Spradling.
Their work, published by Developmental Cell, used fruit flies, which are currently the most-sensitive experimental system for such detecting diet-induced cellular changes that are likely to be similar in mammals.
There are three major types of cells in fruit fly (and mammalian) intestines: Stem cells, hormone-producing cells, and nutrient-handling cells. Think of the stem cells as blanks, which are eventually programmed to become either hormone-producing or nutrient-handling cells. The authors discovered that this programming can be influenced by dietary nutrients, and that young animals are particularly sensitive to these changes.
Obniski, the lead author, and her colleagues found that changes in dietary cholesterol particularly alter the cellular programming driving the production of new specialized cells from stem cells.
The effect of cholesterol is to promote the programming of more new, “blank” cells into hormone-producing cells rather than nutrient-handling cells. Conversely, decreasing dietary cholesterol results in more nutrient-absorbing cells and fewer hormone-producing cells.
Moreover, the researchers were able to identify the detailed molecular mechanism by which cholesterol causes these changes in cell fates, and to show that it is closely related to the way human intestinal cells regulate cholesterol production.
What does this mean?
It shows that low nutrient availability, especially early in life, such as the low-cholesterol diet for the fruit flies, triggers changes in intestinal structure and metabolism that have long-term effects. These changes persist for quite a while even if the diet changes, which can increase the risk of metabolic health problems down the road.
“Children born to malnourished mothers often struggle with obesity later in life and our findings could explain the physiology of why that happens,” Obniski explained.
She and her colleagues say that further understanding the how nutrient availability affects intestinal function could help researchers find ways to use diet to mitigate aging and disease in adults.
For example, the biochemical signaling pathways that were shown to underpin this developmental metabolic programming, explain why a high-fat diet can promote the formation of certain types of intestinal cancer.
“The intestines are the organs most-directly responsible for balancing an organism’s long- and short-term needs with its nutritional environment,” Spradling said. “The power of the fruit fly as a model system allows one of the complex mechanisms that balance these needs with diet to be understood at a mechanistic level, something that is very difficult to do directly in mammalian systems or in human patients.”
Discover silica’s anti-aging and heavy metal detox properties
(NaturalNews) The mineral silica (Si) is getting more notice for its important functions. Sometimes called the “beauty mineral” because it improves skin elasticity and hair and nail growth, a few other more important aspects have been explored lately.
Silica helps ensure collagen elasticity of all connecting tissues in the body, including tendons and cartilage. This reduces aches and pains and maintains your body’s flexibility. It has also been determined lately that high levels of blood serum silica keep arterial plaque from building and clogging blood vessels.
The main culprit for that plaque has recently shifted from cholesterol buildup to calcification from calcium in the blood that is not absorbed as bone matter. It has been known that silica is an important part of building bone matter. Without it, calcium goes elsewhere to potentially calcify in the soft tissue of inner artery walls and the heart.
Silica is vital for keeping strong bones and a healthy cardiovascular system. This qualifies silica as an essential anti-aging mineral that is much more than skin deep.
Silica for detoxing heavy metals – especially aluminum
Even PubMed acknowledges silicic acid as an antidote for aluminum poisoning and silica as a detox agent for heavy metals. Both brain tissue calcification and aluminum toxicity are linked to Alzheimer’s disease.
Aluminum (Al) is passed out through the urine when one supplements silica. It seems there’s little danger of taking too much, as long as adequate water is consumed and vitamin B1 and potassium levels are maintained.
There is no shortage of aluminum toxicity in our environment. It’s in cookware, beverage containers, foil, second hand cigarette smoke, cosmetics, sunscreen, chemtrails, and more. For sure, it is in all vaccines. Injecting aluminum bypasses the normal route of eliminating it.
Aluminum accumulates in tissue that doesn’t have a rapid cellular turnover. The slow turnover tissues are contained in bone matter, the heart and the brain. The brain and its associated nervous system is where diseases such as Parkinson’s, MS, chronic fatigue and other neurological or auto-immune diseases manifest.
Dr. Chris Exley, PhD, has dedicated almost two decades of his scientific life to researching aluminum toxicity. He calls the period of time from the early 20th Century to now the “Age of Aluminum.” Before then, aluminum remained in the ground and hadn’t yet been mined. Exley claims mining aluminum and using it in so many ways corresponds to the marked increase of neurological diseases.
He recommended a couple of pricey mineral waters high in silica that better health food stores carry (Video source below, Exley lecture). He claimed positive results occurred with vaccine injured children drinking these waters, but there are other good less pricey silica sources as well.
Horsetail is an excellent and inexpensive herbal source of silica. Horsetail has been around for centuries, and mostly forgotten until recent research attention uncovered more attributes. Until then, horsetail was used mostly as a diuretic or treatment for kidney stones.
Anything for which silica is useful will benefit from horsetail. And there are supplements that are formulated for silica intake that you may want to look into. Foods that help keep your silica levels high are: Unrefined whole grains such as rye, barley, oats, and wheat. Alfalfa sprouts nuts, and other seeds will boost your silica levels.
About the author:
Paul Fassa is dedicated to warning others about the current corruption of food and medicine and guiding them towards direction for better health with no restrictions on health freedom.
(NaturalNews) How much aluminum is in your drinking water? It’s hard to tell, but in a 15-year study on French elderly men and women, regular consumption of tap water was associated with aluminum toxicity and increased prevalence of dementia. How might the accumulation of aluminum from just tap water alone affect your cognitive ability as you age?
In the 15 years of study, researchers found out that dietary aluminum from water sources could be a risk factor for developing dementia. They also found a helpful solution. They found that the mineral silica could help decrease the risk of aluminum-induced dementia in elderly patients.
A 2009 report from the American Journal of Epidemiology details this 15-year study from France. The study followed the lives of 1,925 elderly patients between the years 1988 and 2003. All of the elderly men and women were selected from 91 different municipalities with different water sources in southern France. Their aluminum intake levels were studied, from water and other sources, as the researchers investigated the metal’s role in bringing about dementia throughout the 15-year period. During that time, the researchers also investigated the impact of silica in reducing participants’ risk of dementia.
Aluminum from drinking water increased dementia in 15-year study
Of the nearly 2,000 elderly studied, none showed any signs of dementia beginning in 1988.
The researchers ruled out environmental aluminum intake factors during the study and focused solely on aluminum intake from water. The participants’ daily consumption of tap and bottled water was recorded. Reliable water assessment data was analyzed. In the study, aluminum consumption greater than or equal to 0.1 mg per day from drinking water was correlated with declining cognitive ability. Over the years, the accumulation of aluminum inflicted negative mental effects, welcoming dementia in what was once a mentally healthy group of elderly adults. Using the scientific Cox model, the researchers found that highest exposure to aluminum may be a risk factor for full-blown dementia.
Hoping to the help the participants, the researchers looked further and assessed silicaintake for its ability to reduce dementia.
What they discovered was that when participants increased their silica intake by 10 mg/day, incidences of dementia subsided. The change was drastic.
This discovery coincides with the expert analysis of Dr. Chris Exley, PhD.
Doctor recommends silica to help those affected by aluminum from vaccines
At a January 2011 vaccine safety conference in Jamaica, Dr. Exley talked about ways to reduce the toxic effects of aluminum in the body. He talked about the importance of silica and mentioned two brands of silica-enhanced water, Volvic and Spritzer. After conducting several urine tests, Exley and his team of researchers proved that high-silica mineral waters help remove aluminum from the body. In a presentation involving victims of Gardasil’s adverse reactions, Exley showed how silica improved the damages caused by aluminum-laced vaccines. Based off 20 years of study, Dr. Exley recommends drinking a liter of silica-rich water daily to reduce the burden of accumulated aluminum in the body.
Sources of silica
Thankfully, silica mineral water isn’t the only place to obtain this important mineral.
According to the 1993 book Silica: The Forgotten Nutrient, by Klaus Kaufmann, silica can be found primarily in the following foods (Silica content is measured in mg.):
Whole wheat grain: 158
Jersusalem artichoke: 36
Red beets: 21
Horsetail – top source for silica
One of the sources of silica not mentioned above is horsetail. Respected as a strong diuretic and astringent herb, horsetail is a fern-like, nonflowering weed that is loaded with silica. The tall, hollow stems resemble asparagus and often grow in bunches. When the plant begins to dry, silica crystals form in the stems and appear to look like feathery tails. This herb can be purchased as a dry powder and can be used raw to make tinctures. The silica content of horsetail is unmatched and is famous for helping people grow healthy hair, nails and skin.
With its high silica content, horsetail may also be good for removing aluminum from the body and warding off dementia.
Kosinski : “If I know 70 of your likes on Facebook, that’s enough to outdo what your friends know about you. If I know 150 likes that you clicked on Facebook, I know you better than your parents know you.” And at 300 likes, Kosinski intimated, the algorithm knows you better than you know yourself.
Some bacteria make energy in a process that is accompanied by transfer of electrons to a mineral. A previously unknown electron-transfer pathway now reveals an energy-generation system used by bacteria in the human gut.
The ability of certain bacteria to transfer electrons has been exploited for a variety of energy-generating applications, such as microbial fuel cells1, because the flow of charge carried by electrons underlies the process that generates electricity. It was thought that the capacity to achieve substantial levels of electron transfer occurred only in a specialized subset of bacteria. These microbes make energy by a mechanism that requires minerals for the electron-transfer process that accompanies energy generation2. Writing in Nature, Light et al.3 report the discovery of an electron-transfer pathway in gut bacteria, and reveal that components of this pathway are present in diverse microbial species.
The molecule ATP provides the fundamental energy ‘currency’ for most cells, and is mainly produced by two mechanisms: fermentation, an anaerobic process in which ATP is generated from a limited repertoire of carbon sources, and respiration, a process that provides a high yield of ATP from a wide array of carbon sources and requires a compound that can accept electrons. In multicellular organisms, respiration involves electron transfer along an electron-transport chain that culminates in electrons being transferred to oxygen4.
By contrast, microbes can use a number of alternatives to oxygen as electron acceptors that enable respiration in anaerobic environments lacking fermentable energy sources2,5. For example, the bacteria Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter metallireducens reside in mineral-rich environments, and these highly studied microbes have an anaerobic respiration process that uses minerals, such as iron(iii) oxide (Fe2O3), as respiratory electron acceptors2. However, because insoluble mineral deposits cannot be transported into the cell, mineral-respiring bacteria use a mechanism2 called extracellular electron transfer (EET), in which electrons are transferred to the exterior of the cell. In the case of these bacteria, this process involves electron transfer from an NADH molecule to components that include a quinone molecule in the lipid membrane and a series of proteins containing haem groups that provide a path for electron transfer. The loss of an electron converts NADH to NAD+, which is used in the energy-generation process.
The food-borne bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes sometimes has a host-associated part of its life cycle. This bacterium can infect humans, and can proliferate in nutrient-rich environments that enable the use of fermentation as a metabolic strategy6. However, although L. monocytogenes has a life cycle in which neither minerals nor respiration is crucial for survival, Light et al. report that, when L. monocytogenes was placed in an electrochemical chamber in which an electrode can trap electrons, an electric current was generated, suggesting that this type of bacterium has the capacity for EET. This report now clarifies evidence presented decades ago7, indicating that this bacterium can change extracellular iron in the Fe3+ form to the Fe2+ form, an alteration that might indicate electron transport out of the cell.
Using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches, Light et al., true to the name, shed light on the molecular basis of this newly discovered form of EET. They identified the proteins Ndh2, EetB, EetA and PplA as being key components of this process. They show that the initial electron-transfer steps of EET in L. monocytogenes resemble those already known in mineral-respiring specialists. For example, electron transfer from the cell cytoplasm to a quinone molecule in the lipid membrane is similar to the steps of a conventional electron-transport chain. However, beyond this point, the mechanisms become more distinct. L. monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, which means that it has a single lipid membrane and a thick cell wall. By contrast, S. oneidensis and G. metallireducens are Gram-negative bacteria, which have two lipid membranes separated by a region called the periplasm that contains cell-wall material. In these bacteria, tens of haem molecules bound to three types of protein establish a path for electrons to move across the periplasm and the outer lipid membrane8. By contrast, in L. monocytogenes, a single protein called PplA that contains two flavin molecules suffices to enable electrons to exit the membrane to reach the cell’s exterior (Fig. 1).
Light and colleagues analysed the distribution of the genes for this newly identified EET pathway in the genomes of different bacterial species, and provide evidence of EET activity in species other than L. monocytogenes using an electrochemical chamber. They reveal that EET activity occurs in an environmentally and evolutionarily diverse subset of Gram-positive bacteria, most notably in certain bacteria found in the human gut, such as those of the genus Lactobacillus.
This observation is intriguing because EET usually provides energy in anaerobic conditions, and growth strategies for such conditions can be important for microbial proliferation in the mammalian gut9. Indeed, Light et al. found that genes encoding components of the EET system they identified are required for L. monocytogenes to grow in anaerobic conditions. Moreover, when the authors monitored the ability of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize the mouse gut, the strains deficient in components of this EET system were at a competitive disadvantage, suggesting that EET has a key role in bacterial survival in this context. Investigating the role of EET in host–microbe interactions could offer an exciting direction for future research.
A central question raised by these findings is why EET might have evolved outside the context of mineral-respiring specialists. The bacterial environment may provide a clue. When microbes such as L. monocytogenes live in a host gut, they are immersed in nutrients, including flavin molecules, and Light et al. show that the presence of flavins potently enhances EET activity. The electron-transfer apparatus is simpler in Gram-positive bacteria than in Gram-negative bacteria. It stands to reason that an abundance of environmental flavins might produce a scenario in which evolution favours the minimal investment in protein infrastructure needed to enable EET in certain Gram-positive bacteria. EET might be used by certain mineral-respiring bacteria because it is crucial for their survival, whereas L. monocytogenes might use EET because it provides an opportunity to easily generate energy in certain environments.
The electron acceptor used by L. monocytogenes for EET is unknown. The bacterium might encounter conditions in which minerals represent an attractive electron acceptor, but it seems more probable that the highly reactive flavins in this pathway aid electron transfer to compounds such as organic soil components, disulfide groups on proteins or even other microbes10,11. If this is the case, in contrast to EET associated with specialized mineral respiration, the EET in L. monocytogenes might provide a more flexible mechanism for moving electrons to a variety of environmental acceptors.
It is a shock to the system to consider that microbes might be living highly charged lives in our gut. Light and colleagues’ work provides a foundation for future investigation regarding such microbial existence. Furthermore, the characterization of this previously unknown EET mechanism might create opportunities for the design of bacteria-based energy-generating technologies.
Summary : Pollinating insects are endangered globally, with a particularly steep decline over the last 40 years. An extensive 3-year study has found that organic farming methods can contribute to halting the pollinator decline. This beneficial effect is due to both the absence of insecticides and a higher provision of flower resources.
Organic farming is known to promote pollinator diversity in crop fields. However, it has also been suggested that organic fields might simply attract pollinators from other habitats in the landscape, and therefore not sustain their populations in the long run.
The 3-year field experiment, conducted by researchers from the Centre for Environmental and Climate Research at Lund University, found that the number of bumblebee species in organic farms was higher and more stable over time and space than in conventional farms.
“This is the first large-scale study over the course of several years to show that organic farming has a consistent, stabilizing effect on pollinator diversity ,” says Romain Carrié, a postdoctoral researcher at CEC.
Romain and his colleagues sampled bumblebees, butterflies and flowering plants throughout the growing season in 10 organic and 9 conventional farms in Scania, Sweden. Their study showed that, depending on the type of crop, the stabilizing effect was either due to a more stable provision of flowers or the absence of pesticides.
“An interesting result of our study is the fact that stable and abundant flower resources stabilizes pollinator communities, even in conventional farms where insecticides are used,” explains Romain Carrié.
“This is strongly suggesting that both flower-enhancing management options and a reduced use of insecticides can help reverse pollinator declines,” Romain Carrié concludes.
Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitaminK2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels.
CKD; PRAL; Renal diets; Vitamin K1; fiber; gut microbiota; low protein diet, renal nutrition, metabolic acidosis; uremic toxins
The neuro-protective effect of antenatal magnesium sulfate on very preterm infants has been demonstrated in good-quality randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses. Magnesium administered prior to preterm delivery crosses over to the foetal circulation and acts via several pathways to reduce perinatal neuronal damage. Meta-analysis of the trial data indicates that antenatal magnesium sulfate reduces the risk of cerebral palsy by one-third, and results in one fewer case in every 50 women treated. Treatment is associated with discomfort and flushing in some women, but maternal side-effects are mostly transient and manageable. Magnesium sulfate has also been found to be without any serious adverse consequences in newborn infants. Consensus recommendations and guidelines have been developed and implemented internationally, and endorsed by the UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. However, magnesium sulfate for neuro-protection of very preterm infants has not yet become established widely in UK practice. Paediatricians, neonatologists and advocacy groups for preterm infants and their families could contribute to raising awareness and engage in dissemination activities and implementation initiatives to develop local protocols for adoption of this safe, effective and cost-effective intervention to reduce the burden of cerebral palsy in children born very preterm.
Evidence Based Medicine; Multidisciplinary team-care; Neonatology; Neurodevelopment; Neurodisability
Like the author below’s mother, we love our night-time sip of Milk Of Magnesia, along with Epsom salts baths, as our supplimental Magnesium supply (or similarly effective, is a small pinch of Epsom salts in drinking water).
Numerous studies have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can inhibit cancer cells growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CLA, including cis9, trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10, c12-CLA), on apoptosis of human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells and its related mechanisms. The MTT analysis was used to evaluate the effect of CLA isomers on the viability of endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells. We then estimated the apoptosis by Morphological observation and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry. We also used Western blot analysis to assess the expression of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2 proteins and the activation of Akt/p-Akt and ERα/p-ERα. Propylpyrazole-triol (PPT), a selective ERα agonist was used to confirm the induction of apoptosis by c9, t11 CLA may relate to ERα-mediated pathway. In CLA-treated RL 95-2 cells, we found that c9, t11-CLA inhibited viability and trigged apoptosis, as judged from nuclear morphology and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significant increased, but no obvious change was observed about Akt and p-Akt in c9, t11-CLA-treated cells. However, the expression of total ERα level in RL 95-2 cells-treated with c9, t11-CLA was unchanged, while in the concentration of 80 mM, c9, t11-CLA down-regulated the protein expression level of p-ERα. Then PPT has the antagonistic action on growth inhibitory effect in RL 95-2 cells incubated with c9, t11-CLA. This study demonstrated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis in RL 95-2 cells, and may involve in ERα-mediated pathway. These results indicated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells and may be potential agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.
Choose Life Notes : When my daughter was born extremely prematurely, I was aware of this acid from studies showing it is found in around 50% higher amounts in mothers breast milk who are eating (almost) exclusively organic vs non-organic, women’s breast milk was tested and it showed that their milk was also many fold richer in this heavyweight nutrient. We had grass fed raw Milk (knowing this also increased the amounts by potentially 300-500%) and the Weston Price based formula of High Vitamin Butter Oil and Fermented Cod Liver Oil (not personally as vegetarian, but I encouraged my wife daily to take this through pregnancy and the lactation period).
This formula, which I believe Weston Price referred to as ActivatorX, bears striking similarity to Johanna Budwigs Flax and Cottage Cheese blend, both are 2-1 Omega 6:3.
This research shows that CLA C9 T11 was found in the highest amounts in short fermented organic milk:
This study investigates the kinetics of acidification, fatty acid (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2 c9, t11) content in fermented milks prepared from organic and conventional milk. Fermented milks were manufactured with five mixed cultures: four different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BL04, B94, BB12 and HN019) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340, in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040. The composition of milk was evaluated, and the kinetics of acidification was followed by continuous pH measurement using the Cinac system. The profile of FA, including CLA, was analyzed by gas chromatography. The chemical composition of conventional and organic milk was similar, with the exception of protein and Fe, the concentrations of which were higher in the organic milk. The rate of acidification was significantly influenced by the type of milk and the bacterial strain used. Co-cultures St-HN019 and St-BB12 showed higher maximal acidification rates in both milks. Final counts of S. thermophilus (9.0-10.1 log10 colony forming units (CFU)·mL-1), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (8.2-8.5 log 10 CFU·mL-1) and B. animalis subsp. lactis strains (8.3-9.3 log10 CFU·mL-1) did not differ significantly in either milk.
Unexpectedly, all fermented organic milks contained significantly higher amounts of CLA than the same milk before fermentation, whereas CLA amounts did not change during fermentation of conventional milk. Regardless of the type of milk, CLA was found to be significantly positively correlated with trans-vaccenic acid and negatively correlated with linoleic acid. Moreover, the CLA contents were significantly higher in fermented milks showing shorter fermentation times.
Choose Life Notes : This highlights the potential importance of Grass Fed Raw Kefir as the Sulfur Protein element in the Budwig Protocol, also within the GC Maf protein mixtures, adopting a best attainable approach, we latterly used to get A2 Raw Milk from Hurdlebrook Farm, they are converting to Organic now, perhaps we will start buying from there again, and make some kefir, as my wife has just started working near by again, serendipitously.
Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attack and strokes, is a progressive dyslipidaemic and inflammatory disease where monocyte-derived macrophage cells play a pivotal role. Although most of the mechanisms that contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis have been identified, there is limited information on those governing regression. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a generic term denoting a group of naturally occurring isomers of linoleic acid (18:2, n6) that differ in the position or geometry (i.e. cis or trans) of their double bonds. The most predominant isomers in ruminant fats are cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA), which accounts for more than 80% of CLA isomers in dairy products and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12-CLA). Dietary administration of a blend of the two most abundant isomers of CLA has been shown to inhibit the progression and induce the regression of pre-established atherosclerosis. Studies investigating the mechanisms involved in CLA-induced atheroprotective effects are continually emerging. The purpose of this review is to discuss comprehensively the effects of CLA on monocyte/macrophage function in atherosclerosis and to identify possible mechanisms through which CLA mediates its atheroprotective effects.
Research suggests that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may inhibit atherosclerosis, but there are contradictory results in different animal models fed heterogeneous mixtures of CLA isomers. This study addressed the hypothesis that the individual CLA isomers may exert different atherogenic properties. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous westernized diets containing 0.15% cholesterol and enriched with 1% (w/w) cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), trans-10,cis-12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA) or linoleic acid (control diet) for 12 weeks. At the end of the dietary intervention, the effects of CLA isomers on the development of atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed. The t10,c12-CLA diet had a profound pro-atherogenic effect, whereas c9,t11-CLA impeded the development of atherosclerosis. En face aortic lesion assessment showed more dorsal and lumbar extensions presenting atherosclerotic foci after the t10,c12-CLA diet. Furthermore, animals fed t10,c12-CLA had pronounced hyperlipidemia, higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) levels, higher vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with a lower smooth muscle and fibre contents and higher macrophage content and activation, assayed as plasma chitotriosidase compared to the control or c9,t11-CLA dietary groups. Plasma chitotriosidase activity was more closely associated with the extent of the plaque than with MOMA staining or than monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels.
Our results demonstrate that CLA isomers differentially modulate the development of atherosclerosis, c9,t11-CLA impedes, whereas t10,c12-CLA promotes atherosclerosis. These opposing effects may be ascribed to divergent effects on lipid, oxidative, inflammatory and fibro muscular components of this pathology. Plasma chitotriosidase is a better indicator of dietary fat interventions that alter plaque monocyte activity in this murine model.
Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA isomers to modulate these pathways was explored in Wistar rats fed for 4 weeks with a lard-based high-fat diet (L) or with control diet (CD), and, within each dietary treatment, two subgroups were daily administered with 9,11-CLA or 10,12-CLA (30 mg/day). The 9,11-CLA, but not 10,12-CLA, supplementation to CD rats improves the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, mitochondrial functions, and Nrf2 activity. Histological examination reveals a reduction of steatosis in L-fed rats supplemented with both CLA isomers, but 9,11-CLA downregulated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory markers, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress markers in liver more efficiently than in 10,12-CLA treatment.
The present study demonstrates the higher protective effect of 9,11-CLA against diet-induced pro-oxidant and proinflammatory signs and suggests that these effects are determined, at least in part, by its ability to activate the Nrf2 pathway and to improve the mitochondrial functioning and biogenesis.
Not every expert agrees cranberries, or cranberry juice, can help prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs): One study found people eating more cranberry products were 38 percent less likely to develop an infection, while a separate study found this benefit was small at best. However, the findings of a new study published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry may reconcile this difference of opinion.
UTIs typically occur when bacteria, such as E. coli, enter through the urinary tract and multiply in the bladder, the Mayo Clinic explained; though fungi and viruses can also cause a UTI. Once infected, the body will secrete a protein called siderocalin (SCN), which works as an antimicrobial to inhibit bacterial iron uptake. This uptake is how nearly all bacteria survive.
So to see how well SCN can influence an UTI, researchers sampled urine from volunteers previously participating in an immunological and pathogenic study conducted between 2008 and 2012. Among their results, they found urine better able to resist uptake had higher levels of pH (or more acid) and certain metabolites. Dr. Jeffrey P. Henderson, senior study author and assistant professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, told Time the metabolites he and his team found were from dietary sources, not human cells.
“It looks like this protein that’s part of your immune system is able to use metabolites in the diet as grips to hold onto iron and keep it away from pathogenic bacteria,” Henderson said.
The high pH and metabolites together may be what promotes “restrictive urinary characteristics,” thus preventing or treating antibiotic-resistant E. coli UTI without compromising gut or vaginal microbes. More research would need to be done, but Henderson added the best part about his findings is the fact it proposes a non-antibiotic remedy.
Already now physicians recommend calcium-rich foods and supplements to boost urine pH. Think of citrus fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. But as Henderon points out to TIME, it’s harder to increase the levels of protective metabolites since there are individual differences to consider. Polyphenol-rich foods, however, are believed to source metabolities. These include tea, coffee, wine, and yep, cranberries.
Herein lies the possibility of reconciliation.
“One thing this suggests is that maybe the reason it’s not more effective is that people need both cranberries and a higher urine pH, or they need cranberries and appropriate inhabitants of their intestine, or the right microbiome composition in their gut, for the cranberry part to work properly,” Henderson concluded.
Source: Shields-Cutler, R.R., et al. Human Urinary Composition Controls Antibacterial Activity of Siderocalin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015.