The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as “possible carcinogenic to humans”, and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL REGULATORS & HOMEOSTATIC AGENTS
Vol. 34, no. 4, xx-xx (2020) – Received May 13, 2020 – Accepted June 9, 2020
M. Fioranelli¹, A. Sepehri¹, M.G. Roccia¹,
O. Yu. Olisova³, K.M. Lomonosov³ and T. Lotti¹,³
¹Department of Nuclear, Sub-nuclear and Radiation Physics, G. MarconiUniversity, Rome, Italy;
²Central Michigan Saginaw, Michigan , USA;
³Department of Dermatology and Venereology, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
In this research, we show that 5G millimeter waves could be absorbed by dermatologic cells acting like antennas, transferred to other cells and play the main role in producing Coronaviruses in biological cells. DNA is built from charged electrons and atoms and has an inductor-like structure. This structure could be divided into linear, toroid and round inductors. Inductors interact with external electromagnetic waves, move and produce some extra waves within the cells. The shapes of these waves are similar to shapes of hexagonal and pentagonal bases of their DNA source. These waves produce some holes in liquids within the nucleus. To fill these holes, some extra hexagonal andpentagonal bases are produced. These bases could join to each other and form virus-like structures such as Coronavirus. To produce these viruses within a cell, it is necessary that the wavelength of external waves be shorter than the size of the cell. Thus 5G millimeter waves could be good candidates for applying in constructing virus-like structures such as Coronaviruses (COVID-19) within cells.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the main problem this year involving the entire world (1). This is an infectious disease caused by a newly-discovered coronavirus. This virus is a member of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold (among other possible causes, predominantly rhinoviruses), and others that can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Among them, COVID-19 is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and anucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilo bases, the largest among known RNA viruses (2, 3).
To date, many scientists have tried to find a method to cure this disease (4, 5); however, without success. COVID-19 may have effects on different types of cells. For example, it has been argued that this virus may have some effects on dermatologic cells (6). On the other hand, it has been known that some waves in 5G technology have direct effects on the skin cells (7). Thus, there are some similarities between effects of COVID-19 and waves in 5G technology.
A new question arises regarding a relationship between 5G technology and COVID-19. The 5G technology is the fifth-generation mobile technology in which its frequency spectrum could be divided into millimeter waves, mid-band, and low-band. Low- band uses a similar frequency range as the predecessor, 4G. 5G millimeter wave is the fastest, with actual speeds often being 1–2 Gbit/s down. Its frequencies are above 24 GHz, reaching up to 72 GHz, which is above the extremely high frequency band’s lower boundary. Millimeter waves have shorter range than microwaves, therefore the reactive cells are those with smaller size (8-10). Consequently, biological cells also could act like a receiver for these waves. Many researchers have considered the effects of 5G technology on human health. For example, it has been shown that 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, but will have adverse systemic effects as well (11). In another study, it was argued that 5G technologies cause great harm to human health. Cancer is only one of the many problems. 5G causes 720 (factorial) different diseases in human beings, and can kill everything that lives except some forms of microorganisms (12). To consider the effects of 5G millimeter waves on biological systems, we propose a model which describes the process of exchanging waves between 5G towers and host cells.
To date, some researchers have tried to propose a model for using waves in extracting information within cells (13, 14). These waves could be transverse electromagnetic fields or longitudinal ultrasound waves. A DNA is built from charged particles and according to laws of physics, by any motion of these particles, some electromagnetic waves emerge(15). Also, the structure of a DNA is similar to the structure of an inductor (16) in a receiver and can produce some waves. Thus, a DNA could emit some waves and interact with external waves. However, most waves have a length more than the size of cells and pass them without any effect. Only limited waves with lengths smaller than millimeter could penetrate into cell membrane and interact with DNA inductors. These wavelengths could be observed in 5G technology. Thus, towers in this technology could exchange waves with DNAs within cells and produce various types of diseases such as COVID-19. In this study, we propose a mechanism for exchanged waves between towers and host cells to obtain effective wavelengths. In our method, skin cells act as dermatologic antenna, take waves in 5G technology and transfer them to host cells. Then, DNAs within host cells interact with these waves and move. By motions of a DNA, some hexagonal and pentagonal holes emerge. To fill these holes,some bases are constructed within cells. These holes join to each other and form RNAs of COVID-19.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A mechanism for exchanging waves between towers and dermatologic cells in 5G technology.
Skin cells are in close connections with nerve fibers. These fibers in the nervous system play the role of wires which carry some electrical currents; these currents produce some electromagnetic waves. These waves and currents are taken by melanocytes, keratinocytes and other dermatologic cells and transmitted to the medium. On the other hand, skin cells could take waves of towers and transfer to other cells and neurons. Thus, dermatologic cells could act as an antenna (Fig. 1).
An antenna could take waves in which their wavelengths are equal to its size. Thus, millimeter waves in 5G technology could be taken more by dermatologic antennas. These waves could pass the cell membranes,enter the nucleus and interact with DNAs. Previously, it has been shown that a DNA could act as the inductor and receiver or sender of waves (16). Thus, a DNA within a dermatologic cell like a keratinocyte receives external waves and sends them to DNAs of other cells like melanocytes. Waves in 5G technology and higher technologies could contribute in gene expressions, turn on some genes and turn off others (Fig. 2).
The question is whether millimeter waves in 5G technology could contribute in constructing some viruses like COVID-19 within a cell. To reply to this question, we should consider the electronic structure of a DNA and its emitted waves. A DNA is built from atoms and electrons. These particles have some electrical charges and emit electrical fields. Also, by each motion of a DNA, its atoms and electrons move. According to the laws of physics, by motion of charged particles, some magnetic waves emerge. Consequently, a DNA emits both electrical and magnetic fields and plays the role of electrical devices within a cell. The structure of a DNA within a cell is similar to the structure of an inductor. When a DNA coils around a nucleosome, it takes the shape of a toroid inductor. Also, by coiling around another axes, a DNA becomes very similar to round inductors (Fig. 3).
Fig. 1. Some waves in 5G technology could be taken by dermatologic antennas, however radio waves could not pass the skin cells
Fig. 2. Waves in 5G technology pass the cell membranes and contribute to gene expressions
Fig. 3. A similarity between different states of DNA with different types of inductors
A DNA coils several times around different axes within chromosomes and produces different types of inductors and electronic devices. Thus, any state of a DNA is similar to a type of an inductor and emits a special wave. Some of these waves are linear, some are curved and others have toroidal shapes (Fig. 4).
A DNA, as an electronic device within a cell, could exchange waves with medium, especially when an electromagnetic wave passes the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane, it induces an extra magnetic field within the DNA inductor and interacts with its fields. This interaction causes extra motions of this DNA, and through the motion of this DNA, its charges move and emit electromagnetic waves. The wavelength of emitted waves from a DNA is equal or less than its size within a cell. Also, shapes of radiated waves by a DNA have direct relations with the shapes of their genetic source. A DNA is formed from hexagonal and pentagonal manifolds; thus,its emitted waves have hexagonal and pentagonal shapes. These waves produce hexagonal and pentagonal holes within the liquids of a nucleus and a cell. To fill these holes, hexagonal and pentagonal molecules are built. These extra hexagonal and pentagonal bases may join to each other and form structures like RNAs of COVID-19 viruses. To produce these viruses, it is necessary that the wave lengths of external electromagnetic fields be equal or less than the size of a cell. For this reason, 5G technology waves could have the main role in the emergence of COVID-19, however radio waves could not have any effect on the evolutions within a cell (Fig. 5).
Effective wavelengths within a cell in 5G technology We propose a model to obtain a probability for the amount of effects of external fields on the evolutions of cells within a cell. This probability is related to the number of micro states of a DNA within a cell:PDNA = ΩDNA, EM / ΩDNA, tot (1)
Where ΩDNA is the probability, ΩDNA, EM is the number of micro states which are produced by the interaction between DNAs and electromagnetic waves, and ΩDNA, tot is the total number of micro states. These micro states have direct relations with entropies:
SDNA = KS LOG (ΩDNA, EM) (2)
Where SDNA is the entropy and KS is a constant. On the other hand, entropies have direct relations with energies:
SDNA =EDNA / Tcell (3)
Where EDNA is the excited energy of a DNA and Tcell is the temperature within a cell. Excited energy of a DNA depends on the linear and curved energies of hexagonal and pentagonal bases:
EDNA = UB, linear,5 V B, linear,5 + UB, curved,5 V B, curved,5 + UB, supercoil,5 V B, supercoil,5 + UB, linear,6 V B, linear,6 + UB, curved,6 V B, curved,6 + UB, supercoil,6 V B, supercoil,6 (4)
Fig. 4. A DNA within the nucleus acts as the inductor and emits magnetic waves
Where UB, linear,5/6 is the energy density of a pentagonal/hexagonal molecule, V B, linear, ,5/6 is the volume of a pentagonal/hexagonal disk , UB, curved, ,5/6 is the energy density of a pentagonal/hexagonal molecule which coils around a nucleosome, V B, curved, ,5/6 is the volume of a coiled pentagonal/hexagonal disk, UB, supercoil, ,5/6 is the energy density of a pentagonal/hexagonal molecule which coils around supercoil axes and V B, supercoil, ,5/6 is its volume. Volumes can be obtained from the following equations:
V B, linear,5 = 5 [1/2 (rbase + xEM )2 cos (ϴpenta)sin(ϴpenta)][ rbase + xEM] V B, linear,6 = 5 [1/2 (rbase + xEM )2 cos (ϴhexa)sin(ϴhexa)] [ rbase + xEM] V B, curved,5 = 5π [1/2 (rbase + xEM )2 cos (ϴpenta) sin(ϴpenta)]× [ rbase + xEM][ rhistone + xEM]2 V B, curved,6 = 5π [1/2 (rbase + xEM )2 cos (ϴhexa)sin(ϴhexa)] )]× [ rbase + xEM][ rhistone + xEM]2
Fig. 5. 5G technology waves could pass the cell membranes and lead to production of COVID-19; however the size of radio waves are more than the size of cells and thus radio waves could not pass the cell membranes.
Where rbase is the length of a base (~10-9), rhistone is the radius of histones (~10-8), rsupercoil is the radius of a supercoil (~ 10-7), ϴhexa (π/6) is the central angle of a hexagonal molecule, ϴpenta (π/5) is the central angle of pentagonal molecule, xEM is the oscillating length which has a direct relation with the wavelength of external field:
EEM =1/2 KEM xEM 2 = h υEM = h c/ λEM (6)
Where υEM is the frequency, λEM is the wavelength of external field, c is the velocity of light and h is the plank constant. Thus, we can write the following equation: xEM ~ λEM -1/2 (7)
We should then calculate magnetic energies and magnetic fields. We assume that a DNA acts like an inductor and thus, we write the following equation for its magnetic fields: For linear inductor:
Where ngene5/6 is the density of genes including hexagonal and pentagonal molecules (17) within DNAs, rhistone is the size of histone (3 × 10-10) (18), rsupercoil is the radius of supercoil (~ 10-9) and Igene,5/6 is there current which moves along pentagonal/hexagonal molecules of genes. We assume that each gene is in fact a long wire that is coiled around the axis of a DNA. A DNA may have 50,000 or more gene (Ngene) (17) and each gene is around 10-12 meter long (Lgene) within a cell. Thus, we can calculate density of genes (ngene):
To calculate the value of the current along genes, we should calculate the total effective charge of all genes (Qgene,5/6) and their velocity (Vgene,5/6). Igene,5/6 = Qgene,5/6 Vgene,5/6 (16) Effective charges of all genes are different from their normal total charges. A gene may have a few normal charges because its charges cancel the effect of each other in the static state. However, during the gene expression and DNA evolutions, each charge has a separate effect. For this reason, we should regard total charges of all genes. To obtain this charge, we should write:
Qgene,5/6 = Ngene,5/6 qgene,5/6 (17)
Where Ngene,5/6 =2 Ngene is the number of genes including pentagonal/hexagonal molecules and qgene,5/6 is the effective charge of pentagonal/hexagonal molecules in a gene. Again, we insist that effective charge of a gene is different from its normal charge. In fact, we should regard all electrons and atoms that contribute in gene expression. For this reason, we should write:
qgene,5/6 =4Nbase qbase (18)
where Nbase is the number of base pairs within a gene (17, 18) and qbase is the effective electrical charge of a base. We can put approximate numbers and obtain the effective charge of all genes:
Now, we calculate the effective velocity of genes:
Vgene, 5/6 = Lgene, 5/6 ωgene, 5/6 (22)
This velocity depends on the length of a gene
(Lgene, 5/6) and its rotating velocity (ωgene, 5/6). Lgene, 5/6 = 2×10-12 m (19, 20) (23)
The rotating velocity of a gene (ωgene, 5/6) can be obtained by summing over rotating velocities of all its effective charges (ωcharge, 5/6): ωgene, 5/6 = ncharge, 5/6 ωcharge, 5/6 (24) To obtain the number of charges, we multiply number of bases and number of atoms/electrons
ncharge, 5/6 = 2Nbase Natom (25)
Now, we put approximate values for numbers and obtain velocity of genes:
Substituting the above equation in equations (1- 3), we can obtain the probability for the amount of effects of external fields on the evolutions of DNAs within a cell:
PDNA = exp (KS EDNA / Tcell) / ΩDNA, tot (42)
Fig. 6. The probability of the effect of waves on the evolutions of a DNA within a cell in terms of wavelength The above probability depends on the wavelength of external fields.
In Fig. 6, we show the probability for producing hexagonal and pentagonal DNA holes within a cell. This figure indicates that by decreasing the wavelength (< 10⁻³m), waves pass the cell membrane and interact with DNAs. This interaction causes the motions of DNAs. By motions of DNAs, their charges move and emit strong waves. These waves produce hexagonal and pentagonal holes within a cell. To fill these holes, extra bases are produced. These bases could join to each other and form viruses such as COVID-19.
Our results show that, by decreasing the wave length, waves emitted from towers in 5G and higher technologies could have more effect on evolutions of DNAs within cells. This is because dermatologic cell membranes act as an antenna for these waves. They are built from charged particles,such as electrons and atoms, and could emit or receive waves. On the other hand, an antenna could only take waves in which their lengths are not greater than its size. Thus, a cell membrane could take millimeter waves in 5G technology. These waves could pass the membrane and interact with biological matters within a cell.
If wavelengths of 5G waves be equal or less than the size of a nucleus, they can pass the nuclear membrane and interact with DNAs. These DNAs are built from hexagonal and pentagonal bases and, by their motions, some holes emerge. These holes are filled by hexagonal and pentagonal extra bases which are constructed by cells. These bases could join to each other and form some viruses such as Coronavirus. It is concluded that in the next generation of mobile technology, emitted waves of towers will have more effects on biological cells.
In this research, we have shown that new generation mobile technology, like 5G, could have the main role in constructing various types of viruses, such as Coronaviruses, within a cell. Some wavelengths in these technologies are smaller than the size of biological cells and could pass the cell membrane and enter the nucleus. These waves could be taken by dermatologic antenna, transfer to host cells, interact with DNAs and move them. A DNA is formed from charged particles and, by its motions, electromagnetic waves emerge. These waves produce hexagonal and pentagonal holes in liquids within nucleus and the cell. To fill these holes, bases are produced. These bases join to each other and can construct viruses like Corona viruses.
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The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets.
Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca2+/calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation.
A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway.
Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca2+-mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles.
This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects.
Discussion and conclusions
How do EMFs composed of low-energy photons produce non-thermal biological changes, both pathophysiological and, in some cases, potentially therapeutic, in humans and higher animals? It may be surprising that the answer to this question has been hiding in plain sight in the scientific literature. However, in this era of highly focused and highly specialized science, few of us have the time to read the relevant literature, let alone organize the information found within it in useful and critical ways.
This study shows that:
Twenty-three different studies have found that such EMF exposures act via activation of VGCCs, such that VGCC channel blockers can prevent responses to such exposures (Table 1). Most of the studies implicate L-type VGCCs in these responses, but there are also other studies implicating three other classes of VGCCs.
Both extremely low frequency fields, including 50/60 cycle exposures, and microwave EMF range exposures act via activation of VGCCs. So do static electric fields, static magnetic fields and nanosecond pulses.
Voltage-gated calcium channel stimulation leads to increased intracellular Ca2+, which can act in turn to stimulate the two calcium/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthases and increase nitric oxide. It is suggested here that nitric oxide may act in therapeutic/potentially therapeutic EMF responses via its main physiological pathway, stimulating cGMP and protein kinase G. It is also suggested that nitric oxide may act in pathophysiological responses to EMF exposure, by acting as a precursor of peroxynitrite, producing both oxidative stress and free radical breakdown products.
The interpretation in three above is supported by two specific well-documented examples of EMF effects. Electromagnetic fields stimulation of bone growth, modulated through EMF stimulation of osteoblasts, appears to involve an elevation/nitric oxide/protein kinase G pathway. In contrast to that, it seems likely that the EMF induction of single-stranded DNA breaks involves a Ca2+/elevation/nitric oxide/peroxynitrite/free radical (oxidative stress) pathway.
It may be asked why we have evidence for involvement of VGCCs in response to EMF exposure, but no similar evidence for involvement of voltage-gated sodium channels? Perhaps, the reason is that there are many important biological effects produced in increased intracellular Ca2+, including but not limited to nitric oxide elevation, but much fewer are produced by elevated Na+.
The possible role of peroxynitrite as opposed to protein kinase G in producing pathophysiological responses to EMF exposure raises the question of whether there are practical approaches to avoiding such responses? Typically peroxynitrite levels can be highly elevated when both of its precursors, nitric oxide and superoxide, are high. Consequently, agents that lower nitric oxide synthase activity and agents that raise superoxide dismutases (SODs, the enzymes that degrade superoxide) such as phenolics and other Nrf2 activators that induce SOD activity , as well as calcium channel blockers may be useful. Having said that, this is a complex area, where other approaches should be considered, as well.
Although the various EMF exposures as well as static electrical field exposures can act to change the electrical voltage-gradient across the plasma membrane and may, therefore, be expected to stimulate VGCCs through their voltage-gated properties, it may be surprising that static magnetic fields also act to activate VGCCs because static magnetic fields do not induce electrical changes on static objects. However, cells are far from static. Such phenomena as cell ruffling , may be relevant, where thin cytoplasmic sheets bounded on both sides by plasma membrane move rapidly. Such rapid movement of the electrically conducting cytoplasm, may be expected to influence the electrical charge across the plasma membrane, thus potentially stimulating the VGCCs.
Earlier modelling of electrical effects across plasma membranes of EMF exposures suggested that such electrical effects were likely to be too small to explain EMF effects at levels reported to produce biological changes (see, for example ). However, more recent and presumably more biologically plausible modelling have suggested that such electrical effects may be much more substantial [104–109] and may, therefore, act to directly stimulate VGCCs.
Direct stimulation of VGCCs by partial depolarization across the plasma membrane is suggested by the following observations discussed in this review:
The very rapid, almost instantaneous increase in intracellular Ca2+ found in some studies following EMF exposure [8, 16, 17, 19, 21, 27]. The rapidity here means that most, if not all indirect, regulatory effects can be ruled out.
The fact that not just L-type, but three additional classes of VGCCs are implicated in generating biological responses to EMF exposure (Table 1), suggesting that their voltage-gated properties may be a key feature in their ability to respond to EMFs.
Most, if not all, EMF effects are blocked by VGCC channel blockers (Table 1).
Modelling of EMF effects on living cells suggests that plasma membrane voltage changes may have key roles in such effects [104–109]. Saunders and Jefferys stated  that ‘It is well established that electric fields … or exposure to low frequency magnetic fields, will, if of sufficient magnitude, excite nerve tissue through their interactions with … voltage gated ion channels’. They further state  that this is achieved by direct effects on the electric dipole voltage sensor within the ion channel.
One question that is not answered by any of the available data is whether what is known as ‘dirty electricity’ [111–113], generated by rapid, in many cases, square wave transients in EMF exposure, also acts by stimulating VGCCs. Such dirty electricity is inherent in any digital technology because digital technology is based on the use of such square wave transients and it may, therefore, be of special concern in this digital era, but there have been no tests of such dirty electricity that determine whether VGCCs have roles in response to such fields, to my knowledge. The nanosecond pulses, which are essentially very brief, but high-intensity dirty electricity do act, at least in part, via VGCC stimulation (Table 1), suggesting that dirty electricity may do likewise. Clearly, we need direct study of this question.
The only detailed alternative to the mechanism of non-thermal EMF effects discussed here, to my knowledge, is the hypothesis of Friedman et al.  and supported by Desai et al.  where the apparent initial response to EMF exposure was proposed to be NADH oxidase activation, leading to oxidative stress and downstream regulatory effects. Although they provide some correlative evidence for a possible role of NADH oxidase , the only causal evidence is based on a presumed specific inhibitor of NADH oxidase, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). However, DPI has been shown to be a non-specific cation channel blocker , clearly showing a lack of such specificity and suggesting that it may act, in part, as a VGCC blocker. Consequently, a causal role for NADH oxidase in responses to EMF exposure must be considered to be undocumented.
In summary, the non-thermal actions of EMFs composed of low-energy photons have been a great puzzle, because such photons are insufficiently energetic to directly influence the chemistry of cells. The current review provides support for a pathway of the biological action of ultralow frequency and microwave EMFs, nanosecond pulses and static electrical or magnetic fields: EMF activation of VGCCs leads to rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+, nitric oxide and in some cases at least, peroxynitrite. Potentially therapeutic effects may be mediated through the Ca2+/nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway. Pathophysiological effects may be mediated through the Ca2+/nitric oxide/peroxynitrite pathway. Other Ca2+-mediated effects may have roles as well, as suggested by Xu et al. .
Buried in their user manuals, cell phone companies specifically instruct us that phones should not be held close to the body. Without following those instructions, we risk being exposed to levels of radiation that are deemed unsafe. At the same time, significant research is showing cell phone radiation can damage the nervous., reproductive, and immune systems. Many scientists recommend reduced exposure, especially for children who are more vulnerable.
The problem is, today’s cell phones are still new, and we won’t know the full impact for years. That means that now, we’re all part of an experiment – we have a group of heavy users taking risks and a control group taking precautions. To know which group to join, we need the facts up front.
This is a ramble, of the threads of thought which are on my mind. In time this may be edited and streamlined, but presently I feel it paints a picture that may help others. It is clear something deep is happening in the world, bigger than just COVID in my opinion. So it will start with a long article about using H2O2 and wander on from there.
Surviving the Coronavirus Disease, How Hydrogen Peroxide Works
Hydrogen Peroxide Has a Long History of Medical Use
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) consists of a water molecule (H2O) with an extra oxygen atom.
The oxygen inactivates viral pathogens by breaking down the viral structure
Additionally, our immune cells produce hydrogen peroxide. This is in part how your immune system kills infected cells. Hydrogen peroxide therapy aids aids immune cells to perform their natural function more effectively.
H202 is on the shelf at the local grocery or drug store for $1.00 a bottle.
The Big Q: Can an inexpensive and easy to administer at-home treatment treat the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2?
The Big A: Dr. Thomas Levy says Yes. The remedy is hydrogen peroxide H202, aerosolized in any standard nebulizer.
It’s worth keeping in mind that while the elderly and those with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk of serious complications and death, the overall mortality rate of COVID-19 is quite low, and very similar to the flu.
A compilation of reported mortality statistics from around the world can be found in the paper,“Likelihood of Survival of Coronavirus Disease 2019,” published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 30 March 2020.
For the latest up to the min COVID-19 resources click here.
To perform this treatment, you need but two items: a nebulizer with a face mask that covers your mouth and nose that emits a fine mist, and common household 3% hydrogen peroxide, available at most grocery stores and pharmacies for less than $1.
However, you may choose to purchase the more expensive food grade hydrogen peroxide as it doesn’t have any stabilizers in it. Stabilizers are proprietary and companies do not need to disclose them on the label, but some can be problematic.
Typically food grade peroxide comes in concentrations higher than 3% so if you chose it your will need to dilute it down to 3% to use it.
Viruses are not “alive” they need a live host in which they can infect live cells that then replicate the viral DNA and RNA. Once a cell is infected, newly replicated viruses exit the cell and move on to the next cell to duplicate the process.
So, when they talk about “killing” a virus, they are talking about inactivating them by breaking down their structure. This is why soap works so well. Coronaviruses are held together by a lipid (fatty) coating. Soap, being amphipathic, meaning it can dissolve most molecules dissolves this fat membrane, causing the virus to fall apart and become harmless.
More specifically, the fat-like substances in soap are structurally similar to the lipids found in the virus membrane, so the soap molecules compete with and replace the fats in the membrane. In so doing, the “fatty glue” holding the virus together dissolves.
Hydrogen peroxide works in a similar way. As noted by Dr. Levy, “the way to control any viral infection is not to kill the virus; rather, the infected cells that have been turned into viral factories must be killed.”
Our immune cells actually produce hydrogen peroxide. This is in part how the immune system kills cells that have been infected with a virus. By killing the infected cell, viral reproduction is stopped. So, hydrogen peroxide therapy is in essence only aiding our immune cells to perform their natural function more effectively.
Hydrogen peroxide is also a Key redox signaling agent.
“At the low physiological levels in the nanomolar range, H2O2 is the major agent signaling through specific protein targets, which engage in metabolic regulation and stress responses to support cellular adaptation to a changing environment and stress …
Recent methodological advances permit the assessment of molecular interactions of specific ROS [reactive oxygen species] molecules with specific targets in redox signaling pathways.
Accordingly, major advances have occurred in understanding the role of these oxidants in physiology and disease, including the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, skeletal muscle and metabolic regulation as well as ageing and cancer.
In the past, unspecific elimination of ROS by use of low molecular mass antioxidant compounds was not successful in counteracting disease initiation and progression in clinical trials. However, controlling specific ROS-mediated signaling pathways by selective targeting offers a perspective for a future of more refined redox medicine.”
In short, hydrogen peroxide is a major ROS, but while ROS are typically thought of as “all bad,” this is a gross oversimplification.
As noted: “Steady-state physiological flux of H2O2 to specific protein targets leads to reversible oxidation, thereby altering protein activity, localization and interactions, which contributes to orchestration of various processes in cells and organs, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and angiogenesis. This state of low-level H2O2 maintenance and its associated physiological redox signaling is called ‘oxidative eustress.’”
Contrary to oxidative stress or oxidative distress, oxidative eustress denotes an oxidative challenge that has positive or beneficial effects and is essential in redox signaling.
The Studies: What they tells us
The most relevant study is 1 that was done earlier this year in the Journal of Hospital Infection. They studies 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, 6X weaker than the 3% typically used, and found that it killed human coronaviruses and SARS corona viruses and MERS.
Another study, published in the American Journal of Infection Control in Y 2009, assessed the efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against viruses on various surfaces, finding exposure to hydrogen peroxide vapor at a concentration of 10 parts per million resulted in 99% inactivation after 2.5 mins.
And a Y 2014 study in the Journal of Hospital Infection found hydrogen peroxide vapor eliminated an array of viruses on stainless steel, including human adenovirus 1, transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs (TGEV, a SARS-CoV surrogate), avian influenza virus and swine influenza virus.
According to the authors, “Hydrogen peroxide vapor was virucidal against feline calicivirus, adenovirus, TGEV and avian influenza virus at the lowest vaporized volume tested (25 mL).” Vaporized hydrogen peroxide was found to completely inactivate a range of exotic animal viruses in a Y 1997 study as well.
Hydrogen peroxide’s ability to inactivate dangerous infectious viruses has also been highlighted in vaccine science. As noted in a Y 2016 study in the Vaccine journal, 3% hydrogen peroxide completely and irreversibly inactivated the rabies virus within 2 hrs, thus reducing time and cost of the inactivation process required for the making of a rabies vaccine, which contains inactivated rabies virus.
The most convenient to receive H202 is to inhale its mist, using a nebulizer a small, handheld device that converts liquid into a very fine mist.
The microscopic mist, similar to smoke or vapor, can be comfortably inhaled deep into the nostrils, sinuses and lungs. While nebulizers have routinely been used by asthmatics to deliver medication into their lungs, this delivery system affects not only the lungs but your entire body.
As noted in the Y 2002 review article, “Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems: Recent Developments and Prospects,” “Targeting drug delivery into the lungs has become one of the most important aspects of systemic … drug delivery systems.“
In the case of respiratory infections, the nebulizer has the added advantage of delivering the hydrogen peroxide right to the areas most affected by respiratory viruses: the sinuses, throat, bronchial tract and lungs.
Dr. Levy writes: “Effective hydrogen peroxide nebulization quite literally, ‘chops the head off of the snake,’ and the virus present elsewhere in the body can then readily be mopped up when the new virus influx has been terminated,”
It should be kept in mind that hydrogen peroxide kills pathogens very readily upon contact in an open wound. It should, therefore, be understandable why putting a fine mist of hydrogen peroxide in all the areas of maximal viral replication promptly puts the body on a pathway to rapid healing.”
Hydrogen Peroxide Protocol
To prevent an infection from taking hold, begin treatment at 1st signs of symptoms. Commercially available 3% hydrogen peroxide is fine for this purpose, and can be used without dilution.
If the undiluted solution stings or burns your nose, you can dilute it up to 50% with pure water. Even lower concentrations can be used, although the antiviral effects will be reduced at lower concentrations.
If already presenting with runny nose or sore throat, Dr. Levy recommends using the nebulizer for 10 to 15 mins 4X a day until the symptoms are relieved. You can also nebulized hydrogen peroxide for prevention and maintenance, which may be advisable during flu season, or while the COVID-19 pandemic is in full swing.
He notes: “As it is a completely non-toxic therapy, nebulization can be administered as often as desired. If done on a daily basis at least once, a very positive impact on bowel and gut function will often be realized as killing the chronic pathogen colonization present in most noses and throats stops the 24/7 swallowing of these pathogens and their associated toxins.
If daily prevention is not a practical option, the effectiveness of this treatment is optimized when somebody sneezes in your face or you finally get off of the plane after a trans-Atlantic flight. Do not wait for initial symptoms. Just nebulize at your 1st opportunity.”
The Dr is bullish in his convictions, however there are associated risks to taking H2O2, perhaps mild or moderate, but they should be discussed, to best inform the reader.
Oxidative Stress may lead to the following :
Oxygen is crucial to life; however, when we use oxygen our bodies constantly produce free radicals. Free radicals are chemically unstable molecules or atoms. They also make other molecules or atoms in the body very unstable, thus damaging proteins, cell membranes, and even DNA structure. This is a process which can lead to permanent damage to cells and tissues resulting in infection, mental decline, depressed immunity system, joint disease, and heart disease. Free radicals are also considered to play an important role in the aging process.
Catalase is constantly in battle against the effect of free radicals to the body. It transforms harmful superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide which later breaks down into water and oxygen.
The enzyme Catalase is a key buffer for these dangers, Grey hair may be an indication of inhibited (or low) Catalase production, here are Vegetarian/Vegan food sources:
Vegetarian Sources of Catalase
Written by Don Amerman
Catalase — found throughout nature in the cells of organisms that grow in the presence of oxygen — is an enzyme with potent antioxidant properties. The enzyme facilitates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into its harmless components — water and oxygen. Without catalase, the hydrogen peroxide that your body produces during the metabolic process would build up to toxic levels. Catalase occurs naturally in a wide array of plant-based foods, ensuring its availability to vegetarians and vegans.
Age-Related Decline in Catalase
The cells in your body can produce catalase as well as other antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, or SOD. These enzymes help to neutralize free radicals, according to the authors of “Biology: A Human Emphasis.” Free radicals are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons that are the byproduct of human biological reactions such as metabolism. Scientists cite free radicals as causative factors in disease and aging-related cell damage. As you age, your body gradually produces less catalase, which results in a buildup of free radicals and an increase in the damage they can cause. To help supplement your body’s declining output of catalase, consume foods that are rich in this vital enzyme.
Garlic, Onions and Their Kin
Nutritionists give members of the allium plant family, which encompasses garlic, leeks, onions and shallots, high praise for their antioxidant properties. Among the cellular antioxidants naturally occurring in allium vegetables is catalase. In a study related to the catalase in allium family members, a team of Hungarian and Romanian researchers evaluated the effects of water stress on the level and activity of catalase and other antioxidant enzymes in these plants. They found that allium plants subjected to water deprivation had increased catalase levels and activity, according to an article published in a 2007 issue of “Plant, Soil and Environment.”
Cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli, cabbage, kale and collard and turnip greens, are rich in catalase. Eating plenty of these green leafy vegetables also stimulates your body’s production of catalase. Researchers at Alabama A&M University conducted an animal study to determine what, if any, anticancer effects could be observed in laboratory rats that were fed a diet of these vegetables. As part of this study, they measured the level of catalase in test animals and found that those fed cruciferous vegetables had sharply higher amounts of catalase in their livers than those animals that were not fed these vegetables. Results of this study were published in a 2012 issue of “International Journal of Cancer Research.”
Wheat sprouts contain high levels of catalase, according to a study by molecular biology researchers at Italy’s University of Perugia. In an article published in the July 2004 issue of the “Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology,” they note that the antioxidant activity of catalase and peroxidase in wheat sprouts is extremely strong. Other vegetarian sources of catalase include apricots, avocados, carrots, cherries, cucumbers, parsnips, potatoes, radishes, spinach and zucchini.
ChooseLife : Parallel to this, is the issues reported of bronchial constriction. This would lead to the thinking that Magnesium Sulphate may be a solid companion to H2O2.
Effect of magnesium sulfate on bronchoconstriction in the lung periphery.
Magnesium sulfate has been shown to be effective clinically as a bronchodilator, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We used a wedged bronchoscope technique to study the ability of MgSO4 at clinically relevant concentrations to attenuate hypocapnia-, acetylcholine- (ACh), and dry air-induced bronchoconstriction in the canine lung periphery. Control experiments demonstrated that consecutive challenges of either hypocapnia or ACh resulted in greater collateral system resistance (Rcs) after the second challenge compared with the first. Intravenous infusion of MgSO4 diminished the maximum response to a second hypocapnic challenge (Rcs = 1.59 +/- 0.29 cmH2O.ml-1.s prechallenge vs. 1.12 +/- 0.20 postchallenge) but had no effect on either ACh- or dry air-induced bronchoconstriction. Serum magnesium levels before MgSO4 administration were 1.59 +/- 0.04 meq/l and rose to 6.20 +/- 0.13 during the infusion. Previous studies demonstrated that nifedipine, like MgSO4 in this study, attenuates hypocapnia-induced bronchoconstriction in the canine lung periphery but has no effect on ACh- or dry air-induced bronchoconstriction. We conclude that these results are consistent with the idea that, like nifedipine, magnesium acts in the airway as a voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker.
[QUOTE]FAD can exist in four different redox states, which are the flavin-N(5)-oxide, quinone, semiquinone, and hydroquinone. FAD is converted between these states by accepting or donating electrons. FAD, in its fully oxidized form, or quinone form, accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH22 (hydroquinone form). The semiquinone (FADH) can be formed by either reduction of FAD or oxidation of FADH22 by accepting or donating one electron and one proton, respectively.[/QUOTE]
“Chloroquine was shown to inhibit quinone reductase 2 , a structural neighbour of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerases that are involved in the biosynthesis of sialic acids. The sialic acids are acidic monosaccharides found at the extremity of sugar chains present on cell”
ChooseLife : This links together the researchers and testing of hydroxychloroquine. Is this not an Electron cascade crisis? Or a pH crisis which manifests into/from Electron deficiency? Whether this is from a Virus, or 5G, the results are the same, the treatments are the same in need… Though the overlap in effects from the Virus and the reported dangers of 5G are startling, to say the least. It is no wonder getting sunlight, or Vitamin D (Protons) is postulated often as a key player in this illness crisis.
This would make sense that Zinc with chloroquine is showing great promise in tests, as Zinc again is an Electron donor, like Magnesium…
Here it is worth also noting that Johanna Budwig contributed huge research and understanding of Electron dynamics, and stated very vigorously that it is Flax Seeds which have the highest level of Electron surplus, she found in her research that taking high levels of Flaxseed Oil, mixed with Quark (1 part Flaxseed Oil, 2 parts Quark, making it water soluble) was the most efficient mechanism possible to re-invogorate the human ‘Electron Cloud’
I often take very sick cancer patients away from hospital where they are said to have only a few days left to live, or perhaps only a few hours. This is mostly accompanied by very good results. The very first thing which these patients and their families tell me is that, in the hospital, it was said that they could no longer urinate or produce bowel movements. They suffered from dry coughing without being able to bring up any mucous.
Every- thing was blocked. It greatly encourages them when suddenly, in all these symptoms, the surface-active fats with their wealth of electrons, start reactivating the vital functions and the patient immediately begins to feel better. It is very interesting to ask how this sudden change is possible. It has to do with the reaction patterns, with the character of electrons. I will return to these electrons later. In the last two years I have come to be very fond of them. A friend of my work in Paris wrote to me how wonderful it is that you have discovered the original birthplace of the electrons in seed oils to be the sun. That’s how these connections are made!
ChooseLife : As soon as I heard about COVID, and the chief symptom of dry cough, I though about the Budwig book and that paragraph above shouted at me. Flax (ALA) I knew was a key supportive element, yet at that stage I did not see the larger context.
Further to this, a new to air youtuber – Ava Green, has become viral, after relating her experiences with Diamox and the alignment of it’s usage and the COVID symptoms : Almost High Altitude Sickness
Pulmonary Edema, Diamox (acetylzolamide) increases Urine pH, relieving this issue:
However, Pulmonary Edema is usually characterised as symptomatic of ‘Productive Cough’ or ‘Wet Cough’ not ‘Dry Cough’. Countless reports I have seen suggest quite the opposite, that the pneumonia/illness type is a very sticky mucus laiden lungs when scanned, hence a dry cough.
This form of eating 75% Fruit and Vegetables, with a strong Alkaline influence (lots of leafy greens especially), if coupled with high Flax intake via a Budwig mix, is shown scientifically to elevate Metabolic and Respiratory status away from Acid and towards neutral (the author does not believe an Alkaline state is any more healthful than acidic, it is the balance which gives the reactive force, and allows the body to extract the electromagnetic energies in foods which in turn release their stored nutrients).
Altitude sickness style illness is what this Dr from New York claims he is seeing:
This Doctor, who is leading a COVID ICU, does it not sound like the symptoms you may expect to see if the 5G side effects are correct, Oxygen oscillation acceleration making uptake into the bloodstream troublesome, as the spin of Electrons become too fast to bind with Hemoglobin? It certainly seems that way to me. New York is a 5G pilot city, London, Wuhan. The Doctor says the effects are like how he envisages one would encounter if someone without acclimitisation were dropped at the top of Mount Everest…
This reflection, or speculation, of Altitude Sickness, reminded me of when I saw a documentary of Westerners climbing Mount Everest, in the Documentary I was struck that a much older Gurkha was carrying the Westerners very considerable Luggage, yet was able to smoke ceaselessly! This aligns to the statistics that are showing that a disproportionately low number of Smokers are being admitted to Hospital with COVID, are the smokers already attuned to Hypoxia like conditions and their biochemistry has been attuned coping mechanisms, like the Gurkha in Nepal? Of course he was acclimitised, but it was still staggering his body could cope in those conditions, when the younger, very fit, climber was struggling in the lower oxygen environment.
80% of those needing Ventillation in New York are dying, what if this is because 5G is in almost all the Hospitals in New York? Making the Oxygen Electrons spin too fast, forcefully adding more oxygen may only increase this damage, in those with Electron buffering insufficiency needed to take this sped up Oxygen into Hemoglobin? This paper supports this idea:
Abstract The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is an infectious acute respiratory infection caused by the novel coronavirus. The virus is a positive-strand RNA virus with high homology to bat coronavirus.
In this study, conserved domain analysis, homology modeling, and molecular docking were used to compare the biological roles of certain proteins of the novel coronavirus. The results showed the ORF8 and surface glycoprotein could bind to the porphyrin, respectively. At the same time, orf1ab, ORF10, and ORF3a proteins could coordinate attack the heme on the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin to dissociate the iron to form the porphyrin.
The attack will cause less and less hemoglobin that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. The lung cells have extremely intense poisoning and inflammatory due to the inability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen frequently, which eventually results in ground-glass-like lung images.
The mechanism also interfered with the normal heme anabolic pathway of the human body, is expected to result in human disease. According to the validation analysis of these finds, chloroquine could prevent orf1ab, ORF3a, and ORF10 to attack the heme to form the porphyrin, and inhibit the binding of ORF8 and surface glycoproteins to porphyrins to a certain extent, effectively relieve the symptoms of respiratory distress. Favipiravir could inhibit the envelope protein and ORF7a protein bind to porphyrin, prevent the virus from entering host cells, and catching free porphyrins. Because the novel coronavirus is dependent on porphyrins, it may originate from an ancient virus. Therefore, this research is of high value to contemporary biological experiments, disease prevention, and clinical treatment.
ChooseLife :This could be seen as supporting the 5G hypothesis, it does to me, ALARM BELLS ARE RINGING. Chloroquine is suggested again, and links the Electron issue, covered early in this ramble.
The gaseous and soluble phases of cigarette smoke are sources of oxidants that contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic oxidative stress of cigarette smoking induces mucus secretion and inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function. The increased mucus viscosity renders the airways susceptible to bacterial infections, a hallmark of chronic bronchitis. Furthermore, lungs chronically exposed to the toxic mixture of oxidants in cigarette smoke show signs of endoplasmic reticulum stress, unfolded protein response, altered ceramide metabolism, and apoptosis. Fortunately, the respiratory tract has developed effective adaptive cellular mechanisms to limit oxidant damage. Numerous antioxidant enzymes and glutathione-dependent detoxification systems are increased in healthy smokers. The regulation of the antioxidant response is largely dependent on the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, patients with COPD have defective Nrf2 responses. Novel therapies such as 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) to correct defective Nrf2-dependent cellular response may hold promise for patients with COPD.
ChooseLife : So, we could see the above as suggesting that healthy smokers bodies may be acclimitised to this Hypoxia type state? Like the old Nepalese Smoker being better able to cope not only with thin air, but also smoke constantly in that environment, the similarities seem stark, however the dry unproductive cough symptom is a key differentiator to HAPE symptoms.
This research area, led me to the following research, when checking into Bronchial dilation (debating in my mind if Magnesium Sulphate is contraidicatd by the above video/Doctor):
CT Features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia in 62 Patients in Wuhan, China
A decreased lymphocyte count and an increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level were the most common laboratory findings.
Omega3 is known to support lymphocyte production :
Effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented parenteral nutrition on inflammatory and immune function in postoperative patients with gastrointestinal malignancy
A meta-analysis of randomized control trials in China
In this study, lymphocytecount was significantly higher in ω-3 groups than the control groups. Omega-3 PUFAs improve the body’s defense system by the proliferation of lymphocytes, and the meta-analysis result also confirmed that the incidence of infectious complications in ω-3 groups was significantly lower than the control group.
This again says to me Metabolic Acidosis is encountered, the Lyposomes/Endosome Cargo carriers and waste removal system appears to become compromised, this is symptomtic of Cellular pH failure, as the lower pH terrain will always result in slower arrival of nutrient cargo as the Endosomes slow, and the waste removal systems slow affecting C-reactive protein as the paper above reports finding most often. Why would Sodium Bicarbonate, Magnesium Hydoxide and the like (high pH substances) not be a first line defence in these dynamics? I cannot understand why not, but a Doctor I am not!
Why does it affect Afro-Carribeans more? We’ve seen that COVID is seen to affect C-reactive protein in a very high number of cases, what if we overlay Omega 3 to this dynamic?
Relationship of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine in Haitian and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) may be protective of cardiovascular risk factors for vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between n-3 with, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine (HCY) in Black minorities with and without type 2 diabetes.
African Americans had higher waist circumferences and C-reactive protein and consumed more calories as compared to Haitian Americans. Omega 3 fatty acid intake per calorie did not differ between these ethnicities, yet African Americans with low n-3 intake were three times more likely to have high C-reactive protein as compared to their counterparts [OR=3. 32 (1. 11, 9. 26) p=0.031].
Consumption of n-3 may be protective of cardiovascular risk factors such as C-reactive protein and homocysteine for certain ethnicities. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.
ChooseLife Notes : None of this should be construed as medical advice, or advice at all. this is just my reflections on Biological Ionisation as it relates to our current situation. The science supports that pH is very, very important, I dearly hope readers may understand this and seek to make informed choices. This period has seen a galvanising of my own diet, and my daughters, to ensure if we are infected/injured by the condition classified as COVID19 (et al) our bodies are the least likely to succumb to the worst effects some people suffer sadly.
I wish you all every wellness. May we come through this brighter and with more positive spirit than we had before, my love to you all.