pH – CoronaVirus and the SO2 Madness

Dear All,

When I first read about the CoronaVirus (2019-nCoV), my immediate reaction was to DuckDuckGo search pH dependency =

This immediately gave me several bits of vital information, to understand the situation from a biological and nutritional perspective. By looking at historical studies, to see some baseline characteristics:

  • In this report, we show that the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein mediates viral entry through pH-dependent endocytosis.  Reference : 1
  • In contrast, influenza and Ebola viruses are prototypes for viruses that utilize a pH-dependent endocytotic pathway (43). To determine the pathway utilized by the SARS-CoV, the pH dependence of the SARS-CoV S-pseudotyped lentiviral vector was analyzed. Addition of ammonium chloride, which prevents acidification of the endosome, caused a dose-dependent reduction in viral entry (Fig. (Fig.1B,1B, left) at concentrations similar to those described for other pH-dependent viral glycoproteins (31143). This effect was also observed with another inhibitor of endosomal acidification, bafilomycin, also in a dose-dependent fashion (Fig. (Fig.1B,1B, right). Reference : 1
  •     The World Health Organization has concluded that SARS is produced by a new virulent strain of coronavirus. Specific research on the possible pH dependency of the SARS virus has not yet been done.  It is well known that coronavirus infectivity is exquisitely sensitive to pH.  For example, the MHV-A59 strain of coronavirus is quite stable at pH 6.0 (acidic) but becomes rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by brief treatment at pH 8.0 (alkaline).  Human coronavirus strain 229E is maximally infective at pH 6.0.  Infection of cells by murine coronavirus A59 at pH 6.0 (acidic) rather than pH 7.0 (neutral) yields a tenfold increase in the infectivity of the virus. Reference : 2
  • Infection of susceptible murine cells with the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus type 4 (MHV4) results in extensive cell-cell fusion at pHs from 5.5 to 8.5. The endosomotropic weak bases chloroquine and ammonium chloride do not prevent MHV4 infection. In marked contrast, we have selected variants from a neural cell line persistently infected with MHV4 which are entirely dependent on acid pH to fuse host cells and are strongly inhibited by endosomotropic weak bases…  Wild-type S induced cell-cell fusion at neutral pH, whereas variant S required prolonged exposure to acidic pH to induce fusion… These findings demonstrate that the pH dependence of coronavirus fusion is highly variable and that this variability can be determined by as few as three amino acid residues. Reference : 3

So, we can see above, that in most cases (all that I can find), scientific studies are showing multiple variants of CoronaVirus are completely pH driven, in terms of susceptibility (most cases, sadly only pH range 5.5-8.5 tested, maybe scientists could test Magnesium Hydroxide = 10.5, to show if higher pH is protective/preventative) and intensity of infection (seemingly all), though there are variations in pH levels required to neutralise the impacts.

Now, initially I just doubled down on my thoughts on Alkalising my own terrain and looking after my childrens via diet and key suppliments. However, as the stories became more and more alarming, things took a dramatic turn.

Sunday 9th February 2020 Reports emerged of an outrageous happening in China

Using it was discovered that rates of Sulphur Dioxide above Wuhan were reading 1351PPB

Now, this alone, suggests strongly that there has been a huge upsurge in burning of organic matter which releases SO2, leading to speculation that high levels of cremation are occurring. The data is contested by some, claims made that this comes from a ‘modelling’ or predictive site, so the numbers cannot be trusted (maybe true, but they are a strong indicator of ‘in the range of’, if not exact in the measurements. This may have some validity, however, another site, showed similar numbers to even when you look without the forecast running you still get numbers in the potentially fatal zones (just like predicting the weather in general, supercomputers are pretty accurate at the immediate forecast numbers).

When I saw these reports, my mind was not transfixed on whether or not this was exactly accurate, or whether it was due to cremations (if so the numbers would clearly need to be hugely higher to create this phenomena), it was OMG why is the Chinese Authorities allowing huge ammounts of SO2 into the atmosphere in the midst of a pH dependant Viral outbreak?

So, immediately I went to look at the safe limits, remember the models were showing 1,300+ PPB :

  • SO2 is a toxic gas, which is directly harmful to human health. It is heavier than air and has a suffocating odour at an atmospheric concentration of around 500 parts per billion (ppb), at which level it can be fatal.  At lower levels, chest pains, breathing problems, eye irritation and a lowered resistance to heart and lung diseases can be experienced. At 20 ppb or lower there should be no ill effects to a healthy person. The normal atmospheric background concentration of SO2 is generally less than 10 ppb.
  • A secondary effect is the formation of sulphates (and nitrates), in the form of aerosols or very fine airborne particles, which can comprise a significant proportion of the particulate matter and have been linked to increased asthma attacks, heart and lung disease and respiratory problems in susceptible population groups.
  • A third effect can occur further away from the emission source where the sulphur oxides will have converted to acids by aqueous phase reactions in the atmosphere. These acidic aerosols are eventually precipitated as acid rain, snow, sleet or fog but only when they encounter the right meteorological conditions. In the absence of man made pollution rain water would be slightly acidic, around pH 5, due to the presence of carbonic acid from the interaction of water vapour and naturally occurring levels of CO2. Acid rain on the other hand has been measured with pH levels below 3 corresponding to vinegar. 
  • In their 2009 joint proposal to the IMO, the USA and Canada stated that by designating the eastern and western seaboards of North America an Emissions Control Area, as many as 8,300 lives will be saved and over three million people will experience relief from acute respiratory symptoms each year”. Reference : 4

So, we can see above, that rates at or above 500 PPB are considered an immediate threat to life, to many groups in society when all is otherwise well. However, Wuhan and several other regions are showing numbers at this level and 2-3x this level, which is a clear respiratory danger to life, whilst in the midst of another Respiratory crisis in the form of CoronaVirus.


The issue over whether this is Cremations, or not, for me is absolutely secondary (though more on this later).

The issue is, who in a sane mind in Chinese Authorities, would authorise or advise scientifically that it was fine to allow the output of huge plumes of SO2, when whole cities are in lockdown, this is INSANE!

Here is few screen grabs, I took last night to show the current predicted Air levels of Sulphur Dioxide:

Then, using at around 12:30am 11/02/2020 UK Time, the Supercomputer forecasting modeller showed 928/2.62 = 354PPB
Wuhan area, 22 hours later at 21:00 UK Time showing 1272/2.62 = 485 ppb Near Potentially Fatal level
Chongqing region, 22 hours later at 21:00 UK Time showing 924/2.62 = 352 ppb

This is just the craziest thing I have experienced mankind do to itself ever. In the midst of cities being locked down due to a virulent Viral emergency, something in China is causing SO2 levels up to appear 1-3x that which is considered an immediate threat to life, yet we are hearing no warnings from the Chinese authorities or WHO that this is happening.

When I took these readings, multiple other cities were all showing these same high readings, Chongqing was at (or over) 500PPB and others I did not record the names of, again I stress the forecast as not running, this was a ‘prediction’ of the present.

Here is a graphic from the Wuhan Air Quality guidelines, showing the levels and targets to bring this further down, up to 2015:

So, we can see SO2 µg m3 concentrations were recorded at averaging 20µg m3 in 2015 on a downward trend line, now we are seeing 16-17x this level in the midst of a respiratory viral crisis!

As I write this today (12:45pm 11/02/2020) North West (as the wind is blowing) of Wuhan is showing readings between 300-500µg m3. It appears the out-gassing is highest during the nights, very very small mercies!

Lunchtime 11/02/2020 8:50pm Chinese Time (if burning of organic matter is happening during the night, as the modelling forecasts suggest, this may well rise back in the coming hours)

This has left me staggered, how can the Chinese Scientists who advise Government policy, or the WHO, or NATO, not be shouting and screaming about this? Imagine you are in this region, or your loved ones, and they are already at huge threat due to a clearly highly dangerous virus, then you find that the air is being degraded so much as to cause a huge uptick in susceptibility to respiratory illnesses???

It is beyond any reasonable debate, that SO2 gas is an acid forming respiratory threat, it will drive down the pH of the terrain it encounters when in sufficient volume and/or when the host lacks sufficient buffering capability.

So, now we should look at what level of SO2 output huge numbers of cremations may cause, when I was a young man I travelled around South-East Asia, one place which was fascinating was Varanasi. The ancient town famous for being a place an estimated 25,000-30,000 Hindu’s go, to be cremated in the open air Ghats per year.

If we divide the lower number 25,000 x 365 we can say an estimated 65 people per day are being Cremated in Varanasi (to my recollection I recall massively higher numbers), none-the-less, this gives us a really good baseline, to look at the SO2 levels above/around Varanasi… given this daily figure is more than are reportedly dying in any one place daily in China (or anywhere) due to CoronaVirus:

So, we can see that at 6:50pm local time in Varanasi, when the bodies will have chiefly been burning through the day, we have 12PPB = 65 bodies burned a day, straight out into the atmosphere.

So, the above shows fairly conclusively, that if it is bodies being cremated in China, the numbers must be in the range of 2 orders of magnitude higher (100x), to have anything like the outputs we are seeing in China. 650 cremations would speculatively result in 120PPB, 6,500 would conceivably result in 1,200PPB+ as has been recorded (modelled or forecast, as you will). The article on effects of SO2 cited above states that ambient levels will be below 10PPB, so we could say the difference between 10 and 12 is what 65 bodies being cremated is showing as causative, then the numbers start to spiral into much higher orders of magnitude (if a 2 points SO2 rise is shown for 65 cremations, then 65 x 20 = 130, 65 x 200 = 13,000, 1200 x 65 = 78,000!!! The numbers start to look absolutely catastrophic is this is cremation driven)

This is a crude comparison, of course, but what other way can we compare to get an insight of what might be happening to create such huge waves of seemingly deadly gas sweeping across China? Incineration of bedding, medical materials (and such) likely dampens these numbers down, but none the less, something much more dramatic than we are being shown by the Chinese authorities seems to be happening.

This is not meant to be alarmist, this is meant to be prodding around with the scant information people are discovering, to allow us to get some kind of clearer picture.

That there is a two week gestation period, before symptoms show, then if like other viruses of the type, up to an 8-10 week illness/recovery period, means we have another 4-6 weeks to see what the first wave is actually doing to people, I pray we all keep relaying the truth of our experiences, to allow the best outcome for us all.

Wishing you all well

Rich Fosh



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