Pumpkin – The Antidote To Halloweens Demons?

Are the Demons Outside, or, Do They Come From Within? (FreeImages)

Upon study of Watermelon, numerous studies presented themselves which included the outstanding benefits of Pumpkin, seeds, rind etc.

Having small children, Halloween fills me with dread, as on the one hand I long for them to fit in, to have fun, on the other it is clear that this date is significant and linked to celebrating Demons and negative spirits, rather than the Spiritually uplifting positive spirits. Plus all the sugar sets children’s minds and bodies in a place where those negative Demons potential rises, as the ensuing Hyperglycaemia/Hypoglycaemia after effects kick in during the following days.

It is no coincidence that a food which in most places where these celebrations occur, is ripe to Harvest at the moment in time, the Pumpkin. Nowadays, this obvious teaching is lost, to most all who partake, or, even like myself grudgingly allow their children to partake in this event.

Pumpkin, Science Based Studies :

The potential of pumpkin seed oil as a functional food-A comprehensive review of chemical composition, health benefits, and safety


The growing interest in foods that can be beneficial to human health is bringing into focus some products that have been used locally for centuries but have recently gained worldwide attention. One of these foods is pumpkin seed oil, which has been used in culinary and traditional medicine, but recent data also show its use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

In addition, some sources refer to it as a potential functional food, mainly because it is obtained from pumpkin seeds, which contain many functional components. However, the production process of the oil may affect the content of these components and consequently the biological activity of the oil.

In this review, we have focused on summarizing scientific data that explore the potential of pumpkin seed oil as a functional food ingredient. We provide a comprehensive overview of pumpkin seed oil chemical composition, phytochemical content, biological activity, and safety, as well as the overview of production processes and contemporary use.

The main phytochemicals in pumpkin seed oil with health-related properties are polyphenols, phytoestrogens, and fatty acids, but carotenoids, squalene, tocopherols, and minerals may also contribute to health benefits. Most studies have been conducted in vitro and support the claim that pumpkin seed oil has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Clinical studies have shown that pumpkin seed oil may be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular problems of menopausal women and ailments associated with imbalance of sex hormones.

Pumpkin Seed Extracts Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Autophagy in PC-3 Androgen Insensitive Prostate Cancer Cells


Pumpkin seed is a rich source of polyphenols and other bioactive compounds that may act as chemopreventive agents against cancer. In this study, five different extracts of pumpkin seeds were evaluated for their ability to affect proliferation and autophagy on PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

All extracts (water [W], methanolic, acetone, ethylacetate, and polar lipid [PL]) inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with the PL extract increased cell distribution in the S phase, whereas PL and W extracts induced autophagy significantly. Moreover, PL extract induced a remarkable increase of glutathione and oxidized glutathione levels, whereas nitrite and hydrogen peroxide levels were not altered.

In conclusion, pumpkin seed extracts affect PC-3 cell viability, oxidative parameters, and autophagic mechanism, thus demonstrating their potential pharmacological use.

Holistic review of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin: Preparation methods, structures and bioactivities


Pumpkin polysaccharides have arrested researchers’ attention in fields of food supplements for healthy product and traditional Chinese medicine due to their multiple bioactivities with non-toxic and highly biocompatible.

This review emphatically summarized recent progresses in the primary and spatial structural features, various bioactivities, structure-to-function associations, different preparation techniques, and absorption characteristics across intestinal epithelial and in vivo bio-distribution of pumpkin polysaccharides. Additionally, current challenges and future trends in development of pumpkin polysaccharides were pointed out.

We found that pumpkin polysaccharides were primary structure (e.g. glucan, galactoglucan, galactomannan, galactan, homogalacturonan (HG), and rhamnogalacturonan-Ι (RG-Ι)) and special structure diverse (e.g. hollow helix, linear, and sphere-like) and significant functional foods or therapeutic agents (e.g. oral hypoglycemic agents). Moreover, we found that the molecular weight (Mw), uronic acid, linkage types, and modifications all could affect their bioactivities (e.g. anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, and anti-diabetic activities), and pumpkin polysaccharides may across intestinal epithelial into the blood reaching to target organs.

Collectively, the structures diversity and pharmacological values of pumpkin polysaccharides support their therapeutic potentials and sanitarian functions.

Effects of Walnut and Pumpkin on Selective Neurophenotypes of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study


Special diets or nutritional supplements are regularly given to treat children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The increased consumption of particular foods has been demonstrated in numerous trials to lessen autism-related symptoms and comorbidities.

A case study on a boy with moderate autism who significantly improved after three years of following a healthy diet consisting of pumpkin and walnuts was examined in this review in connection to a few different neurophenotypes of ASD.

We are able to suggest that a diet high in pumpkin and walnuts was useful in improving the clinical presentation of the ASD case evaluated by reducing oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered gut microbiota, all of which are etiological variables. Using illustrated figures, a full description of the ways by which a diet high in pumpkin and nuts could assist the included case is offered.

Anti-diabetic effects of pumpkin and its components, trigonelline and nicotinic acid, on Goto-Kakizaki rats


The effects of a pumpkin paste concentrate and its components on oral glucose tolerance and serum lipid levels were determined in non-obese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.

In the oral glucose tolerance test, the pumpkin paste concentrate-fed group maintained a lower glucose level than the control group between 15 and 60 min. The compounds considered to be effective in improving glucose tolerance and contained in the methanol extract of the pumpkin in relatively abundant amounts were isolated and identified as trigonelline (TRG) and nicotinic acid (NA).

Feeding a diet containing TRG and NA respectively improved and tended to improve glucose tolerance. The insulin level increased after 15 min in the TRG-fed GK rats and then gradually decreased over the next 120 min. In contrast, a gradual increase was seen in the insulin level over 120 min in the control GK rats not fed with TRG, suggesting that TRG could improve the insulin resistance.

The serum and liver triglyceride (TG) levels in the TRG- and NA-fed GK rats were lower than those in the control GK rats. Lower activity of liver fatty acid synthase (FAS), and higher activity of liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) and glucokinase (GLK) in the TRG- and NA-fed GK rats than in the control GK rats were observed.

This suggests that the regulation of these enzyme activities by TRG and NA was closely related to the suppression of both TG accumulation and the progression of diabetes.

Supplementation with extract of pumpkin seeds exerts estrogenic effects upon the uterine, serum lipids, mammary glands, and bone density in ovariectomized rats


Pumpkin seeds contain lignan phytoestrogens, which have the potential to retrieve menopausal syndromes caused by estrogen deficiency. This study aims to determine the estrogenic effects of the extract of pumpkin seeds (EPS).

In vitro experiment was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on CHO-K1 cells. In vivo experiments were conducted using 24 of 7-weeks-old female Sprague Dawley rats, divided into four treatment groups (ovariectomized [OVX], ovariectomized for treatment with 2-μM 17β-estradiol, ovariectomized for treatment with 500 mg/kg BW EPS, and ovariectomized for treatment with 1000 mg/kg body weight (BW) EPS) and two baseline groups (OVX and sham). Uterine weight, mammary glands, serum lipid, and bone density were observed after 30 days.

In silico experiment was conducted through molecular docking of secoisolariciresinol and lariciresinol to the estrogen receptors (ERs). EPS exhibited a biphasic effect, inducing cell growth at 10-100 μg/mL and decreasing cell viability at 250-1000 μg/mL. EPS 1000 mg/kg BW improved uterine weight and retrieved mammary glands comparable with 17β-estradiol. Meanwhile, EPS 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and recovered bone density in correlation with the decreasing osteoclasts and increasing osteoblasts. The docking score of secoisolariciresinol with ERα and ERβ were −91.13 and −95.87, respectively, and lariciresinol were −80.91 and −90.29, respectively.

These results demonstrated that EPS performs estrogenic properties in rats model and potential to overcome symptoms caused by estrogen deficiency.

Statistical optimization and characterization of fucose-rich polysaccharides extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) along with antioxidant and antiviral activities


Biologically active phytochemicals from pumpkin reveal versatile medical applications, though little is known about their antiviral activity. The fucose-rich polysaccharide extraction conditions were optimized through Box-Behnken design and purified by column chromatography. The purified fucose-rich polysaccharide was characterized through SEM, FT-IR, 1H NMR, XRD, TGA, and GS-MS.

The analysis results revealed an irregular and porous surface of the purified polysaccharide with high fucose, rhamnose, galactose, and glucose contents. The tested fucose-rich polysaccharides revealed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity at very low concentrations. The purified fucose-rich polysaccharides exerted a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both DNA and RNA viruses, accompanied by high safety toward normal cells, where the maximum safe doses (EC100) were estimated to be about 3-3.9 mg/mL for both Vero and PBMC cell lines.

Treatment of HCV, ADV7, HSV1, and HIV viruses with the purified polysaccharides showed a potent dose-dependent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 95.475, 20.96, 5.213, and 461.75 μg/mL, respectively. This activity was hypothesized to be through inhibiting the viral entry in HCV infection and inhibiting the reverse transcriptase activity in HIV. The current study firstly reported the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities of Cucurbita maxima fucose-rich polysaccharide against several viral infections.

Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors


Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice.

The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed.

As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate.

An Appraisal of Pumpkin Seed Extract in 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine Induced Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats


Background: Cancer is one of the most important public health burdens in developed and developing countries. Colon cancer (CC) is the sixth most common cause of death in India and third most important cause in developed countries. For treating cancer, several synthetic agents are available but they cause side effects. Therefore, there is a need to investigate plant derived anticancer agents with lesser side effects. In this direction, we have made an attempt to unravel the potential of pumpkin seed extract for treating colon cancer.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate pumpkin seed extract as prophylactic and treatment for 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer in Wistar rats.

Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, namely, control, DMH (disease control), 5-Flurouracil (standard), treatment groups (100mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), and pretreatment groups (100mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) with pumpkin seed extract. The animals were euthanised at the end of study and colons were examined.

Results: A significant difference in the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) number in all treatment groups compared to control and DMH groups were noted. Pretreatment group at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in the colon length/weight ratio. Pretreatment groups showed a significant change in the colonic glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels when compared to control and DMH control. The nitrite content was decreased in treatment group 200 mg/kg at 5.203±0.852 when compared to DMH control at 8.506±3.866. All treatment groups demonstrated decreased hyperplasia and ACF in histology.

Conclusion: Pumpkin seed may prevent the risk of CC when consumed in dietary proportions.

Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from pumpkin seeds on estradiol production and ER/PR expression in breast cancer and trophoblast tumor cells


Phytoestrogens have a controversial effect on hormone-dependent tumours. Herein, we investigated the effect of the pumpkin seed extract (PSE) on estradiol production and estrogen receptor (ER)-α/ER-β/progesterone receptor (PR) status on MCF7, Jeg3, and BeWo cells. The PSE was prepared and analyzed by mass spectrometry. MCF7, Jeg3, and BeWo cells were incubated with various concentrations of PSE. Untreated cells served as controls.

Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the PSE on ER-α/ER-β/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. The PSE was found to contain both lignans and flavones. Estradiol production was elevated in MCF7, BeWo, and Jeg3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In MCF7 cells, a significant ER-α downregulation and a significant PR upregulation were observed.

The above results after properly designed animal studies could highlight a potential role of pumpkin seed’s lignans in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment.

Pumpkin polysaccharide modifies the gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes in rats


Pumpkin polysaccharide is able to alleviate diabetes, but understanding of the underlining mechanism is still limited. In this study, we hypothesized that the alleviating effects of pumpkin polysaccharide is modulated via changes in the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in type 2 diabetic rats.

After the type 2 diabetic model successfully was established, three groups of high-fat diet induced diabetic rats were intragastrically administered pumpkin polysaccharide, metformin, or saline solution respectively. We utilized 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multivariate statistics to analyze the structural and key species of gut microbiota in the type 2 diabetic rats.

The results revealed that pumpkin polysaccharide alleviated the type 2 diabetes by improving the insulin tolerance and decreasing the levels of serum glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), while increasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Simultaneously, pumpkin polysaccharide changed the structure of gut microbiota and had selective enrichment in key species of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, Deltaproteobacteria, Oscillospira, Veillonellaceae, Phascolarctobacterium, Sutterella, and Bilophila. The correlations between the key species and SCFA production indicated the underlining mechanisms of pumpkin polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes.

Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil


The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats.

Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined.

On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats.

Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02).

We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.


Thousands of studies = Here.

ChooseLife : All links to studies in the headers. Maybe, the Pumpkin placed to ward off evil spirits, is truly a symbol and message to take inwards, to ward off the Demons of our own making???

Watermelon – Whole, Juice & Seed Tea

Many years ago, fate led me to read Hulda Clark’s research and collation of folk medicines she termed “The Cure For All Diseases”.

At the time of becoming aware of Clark’s work, had already undertaken Herbal Colon Cleanses, however, it seemed very intense to follow her full protocol, which was crudely :

Colon Cleanse, Parasite Cleanse and Liver Flushes and a Kidney Cleansing protocol, with Electromagnetic Zapping (which I had become very conversant with, due to my proximity and personal work with Orgone, at that time).

In the year or two before getting married (2007/2008), I decided to try the Liver Flush (now utterly erroneously largely known as a Moritz flush). Which brought outstanding results, especially the third, where stones were passed before the oil/citrus portion, showing me that it was not simply the ejection of the oil taken that evening.

However, I never undertook in the Kidney cleanse, as sitting in a bath eating huge amounts of Watermelon seemed beyond my needs and just too far out (given the Liver cleanses, I don’t know why upon reflection).

Some years later I became aware of the Edgar Cayce readings on Watermelon seed tea, my mind immediately reflected back to the Clark protocol, and, this seemed a much gentler version of her Kidney Cleanse/Flush. At that stage, in my early 40’s I was experiencing some night time urgency, waking at 3am or so, desperate for the toilet. To my astonishment, literally two times taking the Watermelon Seed tea, the night urgency vanished and my body felt cleaner and more able to function as the Kidneys worked that little bit better.

This is something I now turn to, periodically, when any urgency occurs especially, though sadly the seeds are difficult to source cheaply in the UK, it is one of those “worth their weight in Gold” dynamics.

This website, has no affiliation, or link to Baar, or any other product seller, but believes in the reading made by Cayce regarding Watermelon seed tea.

Here are some various studies, by scientists not entirely bonded to allopathy (Allopathic Medicine = Don’t change, we have some pills for that, merchants) :

Watermelon rind ethanol extract exhibits hepato-renal protection against lead induced-impaired antioxidant defenses in male Wistar rats

Lead acetate associated tissue injury has been linked to altered antioxidant defenses, hyperuricemia and inflammation. We hypothesized that watermelon rind extract, would ameliorate lead acetate-induced hepato-renal injury.

Thirty Male Wistar rats received distilled water, lead acetate (Pb; 5 mg/kg) with or without watermelon rind extract (WM; 400 mg/kg; WM + Pb; 15 days of WM pretreatment); Pb + WM (15 days of WM post treatment) and simultaneous treatment (WM-Pb) for 30 days.

Lead toxicity led to elevated serum malondialdehyde, creatinine, urea, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, liver injury enzymes, as well as decreased body weight. Decreased serum levels of reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, total protein and glutathione peroxidase activity was also observed. However, these alterations were ameliorated by watermelon rind extract in lead acetate-treated rats.

Lead acetate associated tissue injury has been linked to altered antioxidant defenses, hyperuricemia and inflammation. We hypothesized that watermelon rind extract, would ameliorate lead acetate-induced hepato-renal injury.

Thirty Male Wistar rats received distilled water, lead acetate (Pb; 5 mg/kg) with or without watermelon rind extract (WM; 400 mg/kg; WM + Pb; 15 days of WM pretreatment); Pb + WM (15 days of WM post treatment) and simultaneous treatment (WM-Pb) for 30 days.

Lead toxicity led to elevated serum malondialdehyde, creatinine, urea, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, liver injury enzymes, as well as decreased body weight. Decreased serum levels of reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, total protein and glutathione peroxidase activity was also observed. However, these alterations were ameliorated by watermelon rind extract in lead acetate-treated rats.

Watermelon rind ethanol extract protects against lead acetate-induced hepato-renal injury through improved antioxidant defenses at least in part, via uric acid/nitric oxide-dependent pathway signifying the health benefits of this agricultural waste and a potential for waste recycling while limiting environmental pollution.

Watermelon rind ethanol extract protects against lead acetate-induced hepato-renal injury through improved antioxidant defenses at least in part, via uric acid/nitric oxide-dependent pathway signifying the health benefits of this agricultural waste and a potential for waste recycling while limiting environmental pollution.

Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel’ (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis.

In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel’, on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum.

Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups.

Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract.

Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions.

In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel’ extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice.

(ChooseLife : Above study is pertinent to eating Watermelon whole, as per Hulda Clark’s studies, not Cayce and the seed tea)

Antidiabetic activity of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats


Watermelon is one of the commonly eaten fruit in most homes in Nigeria and has been used in the management of diabetes mellitus traditionally. This study was carried out to explore the antidiabetic potential of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.


Watermelon juice was used for the determination of in vitro parameters such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH), nitric oxide and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) as well as phytochemicals such as total phenol, total flavonoids. In vitro, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities were also accessed using standard procedures. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of freshly prepared alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight). The animals were randomly grouped into five groups of normal control, untreated diabetic control, diabetic rats administered 200 mg/kg body weight of metformin, diabetic rats administered 500 mg/kg body weight of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice and diabetic rats administered 1000 mg/kg body weight of watermelon juice. The rats were sacrificed on the 14th day of the experiment and various in vivo biochemical parameters were also evaluated in the serum and tissue homogenates of diabetic rats.


The watermelon juice exhibits anti-oxidant properties and inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and α-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. Added to this, the administration of different doses of the watermelon juice significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, glucose-6-phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, hexokinase activity as well as glucose transporters (GLUT 2 and GLUT 4) levels in diabetic rats administered different doses of Citrullus lanatus.


Taken together, this study demonstrates that watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice exhibits its antidiabetic potential in experimental diabetic animal model via multiple pathways involving modulation of glucose transporters, anti-inflammatory activities as well as antioxidant defense system and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. This suggests that the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice may have a useful clinical application in the management of diabetes mellitus and its metabolic complications if developed as adjuvant therapy.

Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats

Chronic and acute alcohol exposure has been extensively reported to cause oxidative stress in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues.

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is known to possess various beneficial properties including; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic effects. However, there is a lack of pertinent information on its importance in acute alcohol-induced hepato- and neuro-toxicity.

The present study evaluated the potential protective effects of watermelon juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the liver and brain of male Wistar rats. Rats were pre-treated with the watermelon juice at a dose of 4 ml/kg body weight for a period of fifteen days prior to a single dose of ethanol (50%; 12 ml/kg body weight). Ethanol treatment reduced body weight gain and significantly altered antioxidant status in the liver and brain. This is evidenced by the significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increased catalase (CAT) activity in the brain and liver. There was no significant difference in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver and brain.

Oral administration of watermelon juice for fifteen (15) days prior to ethanol intoxication, significantly reduced the concentration of MDA in the liver and brain of rats. In addition, water melon pre-treatment increased the concentration of GSH and normalized catalase activity in both tissues in comparison to the ethanol control group. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and steroids in watermelon juice. Our findings indicate that watermelon juice demonstrate anti-oxidative effects in ethanol-induced oxidation in the liver and brain of rats; which could be associated with the plethora of antioxidant phyto-constituents present there-in.

Juice of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (wild watermelon) inhibits the entry and propagation of influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo

Vaccines and various anti‐influenza drugs are clinically used to prevent and treat influenza infections. However, with the antigenic mismatch of vaccines and the emergence of drug‐resistant viral strains, new approaches for treating influenza are warranted.

This study focused on natural foods as potential candidates for the development of new treatment options for influenza infections. The screening of plants from the Cucurbitaceae family revealed that the juice of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (wild watermelon) had the strongest ability to inhibit the replication of influenza virus in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells.

The results of a time‐of‐addition assay indicated that wild watermelon juice (WWMJ) inhibits the adsorption and late stages of viral replication, suggesting that WWMJ contains multiple constituents with effective anti‐influenza activity. A viral adsorption analysis showed that WWMJ reduces the amount of viral RNA in the cells at 37°C but not at 4°C, confirming that WWMJ inhibits viral entry into the host cells at 37°C.

These results suggest that a mechanism other than the inhibition of viral attachment is involved in the anti‐influenza action of WWMJ, which is perhaps responsible for a reduction in internalization of the virus.

Administration of WWMJ into the nasal mucosa of BALB/c mice infected with the A/PR/8/34 mouse‐adapted influenza virus was seen to significantly improve the survival rate.

The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrate the anti‐influenza potential of WWMJ in vitro and in vivo. (Part about developing drugs from this removed)

Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Extract on Glycated Hemoglobin Formation (In Vitro)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is typically a disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It develops due to a lack of or loss associated with insulin and/or resistance to insulin. Regarding complications of chemical substance use, drugs with few complications and high-reliability tannins are needed. This study aimed to determine the effect and mechanism of action of Citrullus colocynthis extract on the formation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c).

Materials and Methods

A solution containing hemoglobin and glucose was incubated for 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, and 60 days by adding Citrullus colocynthis extract or glutathione. Quantitative measurement of HbA1c was performed using ion-exchange chromatography. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and two-way repeated measures test. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The Citrullus colocynthis extract in hyperglycemic conditions and with increasing time reduced the formation of HbA1c and thus inhibited the production of glycated proteins. By increasing the time and after initiation of reaction of extract concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 g/dL), presently, there was a significant decrease in the formation of HbA1C compared to those in the control group (p<0.05). The decrease in glycation has been dose dependent.


Therefore, Citrullus colocynthis could directly reduce the formation of HbA1c.

Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims


Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments.

In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral.

Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript.

However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene. 

Keywords: cancer; cardiovascular disorders; functional foods; lycopene; macular diseases; watermelon.

Watermelon and L-Citrulline in Cardio-Metabolic Health: Review of the Evidence 2000-2020


Purpose of review: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) distinctively contains L-citrulline and L-arginine, precursors of nitric oxide (NO), along with polyphenols and carotenoids suggesting a role in cardio-metabolic health.

The goal of this paper is to review the preclinical and clinical trial evidence published from 2000 to 2020 to assess watermelon intake and L-citrulline, as a signature compound of watermelon, on cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, and to identify future directions important for establishing dietary guidance and therapeutic recommendations actionable by health care professionals, patients, and the general public.

Recent findings: Watermelon and L-citrulline supplementation reduced blood pressure in human trials. Evidence for benefits in lipids/lipoprotein metabolism is emerging based on human literature and consistently reported in animal models.

A role for watermelon intake in body weight control, possibly through satiety mechanisms, warrants further research. Likewise, improved glucose homeostasis in chemically and diet-induced animal models of diabetes is apparent, though limited data are available in humans.

Emerging areas include brain and gut health indicated by NO bioavailability in all tissues, and evidence suggesting improvements in gut barrier function and altered microbial composition after watermelon intake that may influence metabolite pools and physiological function.

Watermelon fruit contains unique vaso- and metabolically-active compounds. Accumulating evidence supports regular intake for cardio-metabolic health. Future research to determine the amount and frequency of watermelon/citrulline intake for desired outcomes in different populations requires attention to advance preventative and therapeutic strategies for optimal health and disease risk reduction.

Watermelon juice: potential functional drink for sore muscle relief in athletes


l-Citrulline is an excellent candidate to reduce muscle soreness, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid.

This study investigated the potential of watermelon juice as a functional drink for athletes. An in vitro study of intestinal absorption of l-citrulline in Caco-2 cells was performed using unpasteurized (NW), pasteurized (80 °C for 40 s) watermelon juice (PW) and, as control, a standard of l-citrulline. l-citrulline bioavailability was greater when it was contained in a matrix of watermelon and when no heat treatment was applied.

In the in vivo experiment (maximum effort test in a cycloergometer), seven athletes were supplied with 500 mL of natural watermelon juice (1.17 g of l-citrulline), enriched watermelon juice (4.83 g of l-citrulline plus 1.17 g from watermelon), and placebo.

Both watermelon juices helped to reduce the recovery heart rate and muscle soreness after 24 h.

Benefits of Supplementation with L-arginine, Citrulline and Watermelon on Vascular and Metabolic Health

1. Introduction

The endothelium is crucial in controlling blood pressure and preventing cardiovascular diseases. In endothelial cells, adequate arginine (ARG) availability for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is essential to prevent arterial stiffening and hypertension. NO is a potent vasodilator and regulator of blood pressure and organ blood flow. The amino acid ARG is the only substrate for endothelial NO synthase to produce NO. However, in some conditions, such as aging, menopause, hypertension, and obesity, ARG becomes the substrate for an overactive arginase, leading to ARG deficiency and endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies have used ARG supplementation to improve vascular function with mixed results. Moreover, oral citrulline (CIT) can be a precursor of ARG and NO in the kidneys and endothelium, respectively. Given arginase does not catabolize CIT, oral CIT supplementation efficiently increases circulating ARG availability for NO synthesis [1]. Watermelon is a natural source of CIT and ARG, with the rind containing more CIT than the flesh [2]. CIT supplementation, synthetic or from watermelons, improved plasma ARG and NO levels, peripheral arterial stiffness, and blood pressure in middle-aged and older adults [1], demonstrating vascular protective effects. However, researchers know little about the CIT and watermelon supplementation effects on blood flow and endothelial function, with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) assessments. This Special Issue presents two articles on the impact of watermelon on vascular functions. Furthermore, two additional articles provide evidence of the benefits of synthetic CIT supplementation on FMD and skeletal muscle function in postmenopausal women.

2. The Watermelon Studies

In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, Fujie et al. [3] investigated the acute effects of wild watermelon-extracted juice ingestion on central and peripheral arterial stiffness and blood flow, and plasma NO levels in healthy young females. The results showed that increased NO bioavailability with wild watermelon juice improved lower-limb arterial stiffness (femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity) and blood flow of the posterior tibial artery. Interestingly, acute watermelon ingestion did not affect aortic stiffness and carotid artery blood flow, indicating that watermelon affects peripheral but not central arteries in young healthy women. These findings establish the framework for future studies of chronic watermelon intake as a preventative therapeutic strategy against peripheral vascular dysfunction in high-risk populations.

Volino-Souza et al. [4] reviewed the effects of watermelon ingestion on vascular health and proposed utilizing food science and technology to improve its efficacy. The authors extensively described CIT properties and mechanisms of vascular dysfunction. Additionally, they illustrated the effects of watermelon ingestion on the main components of vascular health, including endothelial function, arterial stiffness, aortic hemodynamics, blood pressure, and vascular biomarkers. The studies discussed by Volino-Souza et al. found that watermelon supplementation does not affect aortic stiffness but reduces peripheral arterial stiffness and indices of wave reflection in postmenopausal women. In contrast, recent studies failed to improve endothelial function (i.e., FMD) following watermelon juice supplementation in healthy normotensive adults. This ineffectiveness may be attributed to the participants’ good health. Moreover, the amount of CIT in watermelon products may be a limiting factor for beneficial vascular effects [4]. The authors proposed using food technologies such as microencapsulation to deliver higher CIT doses in a lower watermelon volume. 

3. The Citrulline Studies

In this Special Issue, two original research manuscripts focused on the effects of CIT on endothelial function assessed by FMD in postmenopausal women with hypertension. Postmenopausal women experience reduced ARG availability which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction precedes arterial stiffness and hypertension [5]. Maharaj et al. examined the results of 4 weeks of CIT on brachial artery FMD, plasma ARG levels, and aortic blood pressure [6]. The authors found that CIT supplementation improved these vascular parameters. In addition to its vascular effects, CIT supplementation with exercise training increased muscle mass or strength in older adults [7,8]. Previous studies did not use resistance training for exercise. However, Kang et al. [9] employed resistance training for investigating the effects of CIT supplementation on superficial femoral FMD, leg lean mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and leg muscle strength. They randomized participants to CIT or placebo for 8 weeks. For the first 4 weeks, they were on supplementation alone. Then, during the remaining 4 weeks, both groups performed slow-velocity low-intensity resistance training (SVLIRT) for the leg muscles. Kang et al. proved that CIT supplementation alone significantly increases FMD without improvements in leg muscle mass and strength. Interestingly, the combination of CIT and SVLIRT improved leg FMD, lean mass, and muscle strength compared to placebo and SVLIRT. These two manuscripts showed that CIT supplementation significantly improves the endothelial function of arm and leg arteries and, when combined with resistance training, has additive effects on the muscles of the trained limb. Future studies should evaluate the integration of CIT supplementation and resistance training to improve vascular and muscular function in populations with endothelial dysfunction and muscle abnormalities, such as sarcopenia, dynapenia, and exercise intolerance. 

4. Conclusions

Endothelial dysfunction can impair arterial structure and function, leading to wall stiffness, atherosclerosis, and hypertension [5]. These pathophysiological conditions increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by restricting organ blood flow and damaging arterial and ventricular walls [5]. Dietary ARG precursors, such as watermelon and CIT, may significantly impact ameliorating vascular dysfunction, particularly in middle-aged and older adults with cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases. However, most clinical trials on the effects of CIT and watermelon were performed in healthy, overweight, obese, and hypertensive individuals. This Special Issue highlights the potential vascular and muscular benefits of watermelon, CIT, or CIT combined with resistance training in individuals with cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases.

Watermelon extract reduces blood pressure but does not change sympathovagal balance in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects


Previous studies have shown that watermelon extract reduces blood pressure through vasodilation. However, those studies have not verified whether sympathetic nervous activity is influenced by watermelon extract.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with watermelon extract for 6 weeks on blood pressure and sympathovagal balance of prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals.

Forty volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, experimental and placebo-controlled study. They consumed 6 g of watermelon extract daily (n = 20; age 48.7 ± 1.9 years, 10 men) or a placebo (n = 20; age 47.4 ± 1.2 years, 11 men) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation were measured.

Watermelon extract promoted a significant reduction in systolic (137.8 ± 3.9 to 126.0 ± 4.0 mmHg, p < 0.0001) and diastolic (79.2 ± 2.2 to 72.3 ± 2.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) blood pressure, but showed no differences compared to the placebo group. This significant reduction in blood pressure occurred without a significant change in sympathovagal balance from the beginning (1.7 ± 0.1) to the end of the study (1.7 ± 0.4).

In conclusion, supplementation with watermelon extract reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals, but does not alter the cardiac autonomic modulation of these individuals.

Chooselife : Links to studies in all headers. Link to Pubmed studies of Watermelon, results page = Here

Smile ‘tis your choice

Hypoglycemia masquerading as acute psychosis in young age


The classic presentation of hypoglycemia includes tachycardia, anxiety, extreme hunger, tremor, palpitations, pallor, weakness and an altered level of consciousness. The hypoglycemic patient’s presentation may also lead to suspect another condition such as cerebrovascular accident, seizure, head injury or acute psychosis.

A clinical study was done to determine whether there is a correlation between the manifestations of hypoglycemia and the patient’s age.


We studied 191 prehospital patients in the period from February 1998 to September 1999. For each patient we studied: the level of blood glucose, age and clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia.


99 (51.4%) patients presented with coma, 24 patients (12.6%) presented with focal neurological deficit or seizure activity, 56 (29.2%) were confused and 12 (6.8%) presented as acute psychosis.

We found out that there existed a statistically important difference in patient’s age between clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia (Table).


In our study we found out that psychosis as a manifestation of hypoglycemia presents in significantly younger patients than other manifestations (Student t-test <0.05). In elderly patients hypoglycemia presents more often with focal neurological deficit, seizure, confusion and coma. Our cases illustrate the importance of considering hypoglycemia in all patients who present with alterations in mental status even when the clinical findings seem to be explained initially by other etiologies. Emergency physicians must be aware of such a presentation of hypoglycemia and the need for rapid testing, since testing is easily performed and therapy is most often curative with a good outcome.


ChooseLife : Carey Reams described how many people (he believed Hypoglycaemia was the biggest cause of divorce) were unaware of their Hypoglycaemia or tendency towards this state. He described how in many he saw the fall in sugars as being what he called “the Hell zone” or words to this effect. Moreless, when queried on the causes of Depression, simply said “Prolonged low blood sugar”.

In these days, of heightened sensitivity amongst the world populace, especially the West where we are more prone to diets excessively high in refined sugars, knowing these dynamics and acting by avoiding the Demon fuels as best we may, is a Devine inspired teaching.

These past few years, saw first the explosion of the Vegan movement, which has beautiful ethical backgrounds, however for most this means fuelling this fight or flight demon, if not undertaken with the greatest of care not to over stimulate this delicate balance.

The Omega3 fats, appear crucial in buffering this situation, as a long term vegetarian my stance is to have the Budwig mixture daily of Quark and Flaxoil. To be mindful when I escalate my sugars, of allowing the subsequent emotional storm not to set into my being, resist refuelling this demon by simply charging back up on simple sugars, we crave sugars as our bodies know that most of the essential nutrients are bound to sugar chains, fuelling the body with these nutrients, dampens these Demons call towards us.

It is no surprise at all, to see a flourishing of the “Meat only diet”, and similar other forms, though this is beset with a different side of this storm mankind faces these times.

Smile, ‘Tis your choice.

Giving your internal Alchemy a helping hand

When reading Choose Life Or Death, it struck me how Carey Reams described the helpful nature of meal regularity. How the Liver is greatly helped by having very stable eating times, as the Liver/Pancreas may find this a great help, as it may learn or predict when certain Enzymes (et al) will be needed, so may prepare itself for the Alchemical needs on the body.

This is readily described, by Potato and many peoples tendency towards Hypoglycaemia when eating Potato. After some time it was realised, Johanna Budwig in her Protocol cited that 50grams of Potato boiled only was allowed, which seemed initially antagonistic to Reams, however, this is part of that same “routine” teaching, as outlined below.

Many people, myself included, are addicted to certain foods, Potato in this focus, is shown by the Linus Pauling Institute to break down into form almost identical to White Sugar. Being a long term Vegetarian myself, I was prone to having a large portion of chips (for example). Now in time, the body gains a muscle memory for this behaviour, often overshooting the Insulin creation, where even if you only have 50grams as Budwig allowed, the memory of previous large amounts of Potato are recalled by the Liver which sends large amounts of Enzymes to the Parncreas to produce excessive Insulin, or excess Amylase production.

Therefore, the body attempting to help the host, trigger’s Hypoglycaemia as it expects large amounts of Potato and drives the bodies blood sugar too low.

Many times, this creates a “Condition”, if we consult Medical types who do not view the broader dynamic of foods causing such instances.

The Linus Pauling studies, show that Potato stored cold or worse frozen exacerbates this dynamic of Potato being like White sugar as the Carbon chains are denatured.

When younger and not fully aware of this dynamic a co-worker avoided Potato completely and was clearly scared to have even 1 crisp in case this was triggered.

Go gently with your body and eating habits, the Alchemist(s) inside will thank you with feeling much better. If you have a long history of eating large amounts of something which makes you feel unwell after, consider this dynamic and be ready to help calm the body away from this state?

Smile, ‘it’s your choice.

Related : https://chooselife.co.uk/index.php/2019/05/23/carey-reams-1978-interview-with-acres-usa-on-hypoglycemia/

Reduced calcium levels and accumulation of abnormal insulin granules in stem cell models of HNF1A deficiency

Bryan J González et al. Commun Biol. 2022.


Mutations in HNF1A cause Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (HNF1A-MODY). To understand mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction, we generated stem cell-derived pancreatic endocrine cells with hypomorphic mutations in HNF1A.

HNF1A-deficient β-cells display impaired basal and glucose stimulated-insulin secretion, reduced intracellular calcium levels in association with a reduction in CACNA1A expression, and accumulation of abnormal insulin granules in association with SYT13 down-regulation. Knockout of CACNA1A and SYT13 reproduce the relevant phenotypes. In HNF1A deficient β-cells, glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea drug used in the treatment of HNF1A-MODY patients, increases intracellular calcium, and restores insulin secretion. While insulin secretion defects are constitutive in β-cells null for HNF1A, β-cells heterozygous for hypomorphic HNF1A (R200Q) mutations lose the ability to secrete insulin gradually; this phenotype is prevented by correction of the mutation.

Our studies illuminate the molecular basis for the efficacy of treatment of HNF1A-MODY with sulfonylureas, and suggest promise for the use of cell therapies.


(Chooselife is interested in the Calcium Status of Cells, not proposed drugs)

Related : https://chooselife.co.uk/index.php/2019/04/12/advances-in-nutritional-research-on-regulatory-t-cells/

Effects of Daily Kelp ( Laminaria japonica) Intake on Body Composition, Serum Lipid Levels, and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Healthy Japanese Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study 

Seiichiro Aoe et al. Mar Drugs. 2021.


To investigate whether supplementation with iodine-reduced kelp (Laminaria japonica) powder decreases body fat composition in overweight Japanese subjects, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 and <30 kg/m2.

Subjects were randomly assigned to consume thirty tablets/d (10 tablets orally, 3 times/d) containing either iodine-reduced kelp powder (test, 6 g kelp powder corresponding to 3 g alginate/d) or kelp-free powder (placebo) for 8 weeks.

Anthropometric measurements, blood lipids, and serum thyroid hormone levels were obtained before and after the trial.

Body fat percentage was significantly decreased in male subjects from the test group compared with the placebo group.

The same tendency was observed for body weight (p = 0.065) and BMI (p = 0.072) in male subjects. No significant changes in anthropometric measurements or visceral fat area were observed in female subjects.

Serum thyroid hormone concentrations did not increase after 1.03 mg/d of iodine supplementation through kelp intake. The intake of iodine-reduced kelp powder led to significant and safe reductions in body fat percentage in overweight male subjects.

The consumption of kelp high in alginate may contribute to preventing obesity without influencing thyroid function in Japanese subjects with a relatively high intake of iodine from seaweed.

Keywords: alginate; body fat percentage; iodine; kelp; thyroid hormone.

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34206160/

Autism and Nutrition Study

Comprehensive Nutritional and Dietary Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Randomized, Controlled 12-Month Trial


James B Adams 1Tapan Audhya 2Elizabeth Geis 3Eva Gehn 4Valeria Fimbres 5Elena L Pollard 6Jessica Mitchell 7Julie Ingram 8Robert Hellmers 9Dana Laake 10Julie S Matthews 11Kefeng Li 12Jane C Naviaux 13Robert K Naviaux 14Rebecca L Adams 15Devon M Coleman 16David W Quig 17


This study involved a randomized, controlled, single-blind 12-month treatment study of a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention.

Participants were 67 children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 3-58 years from Arizona and 50 non-sibling neurotypical controls of similar age and gender.

Treatment began with a special vitamin/mineral supplement, and additional treatments were added sequentially, including essential fatty acids, Epsom salt baths, carnitine, digestive enzymes, and a healthy gluten-free, casein-free, soy-free (HGCSF) diet.

There was a significant improvement in nonverbal intellectual ability in the treatment group compared to the non-treatment group (+6.7 ± 11 IQ points vs. -0.6 ± 11 IQ points, p = 0.009) based on a blinded clinical assessment.

Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10.

The positive results of this study suggest that a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention is effective at improving nutritional status, non-verbal IQ, autism symptoms, and other symptoms in most individuals with ASD. Parents reported that the vitamin/mineral supplements, essential fatty acids, and HGCSF diet were the most beneficial.

Keywords: Epsom salts; autism; autism spectrum disorder; carnitine; digestive enzymes; essential fatty acids; minerals; vitamins.


Less Grain Fog – Chickpea Pancakes

Amber Fosh’s Favourite Dinner

Endorsed, often forcefully to Daddy, by Amber Fosh, it gives her wings, you see?

Some years ago, came across a recipe for Pancakes from Chickpea flour. The person got quite upset, saying ”it’s mine”, get your own content…

Anyway, this was based on a Sebi Diet plan, so quite how she ”owned” this, no idea really.

Since, have pondered, and, adapted my ingredients, so this is not at all like the original (which had dreadful nutritional flaws, in hindsight). This is a good way to get Carbohydrate energy without Wheat, Rice etc. Strong nutrient profile.

50% Chickpea Flour

25% Coconut Milk

25% Carbonated Water

1 Spoonful Extra Virgin Olive Oil (First Harvest Fresh if £)

2 Capsules of Kelp Powder

1 Good Sprinkle of Cinnamon

Vanilla Pod

Spoonful Inulin (optional)

Mix it up…

Hot Pan, Dash Oil…

Honey and Fresh Lemon, or, pure Fruit Jam (Just Pectin = feeding good bacteria)

Mix and some good Extra Virgin Olive Oil to cook. Savoury, replace Cinnamon and Vanilla with Nutritional Yeast, these also work if gently cooked to a gluten free crisp bread.

Sebi (or followers) were advising Grape Seed Oil when I came across the recipe, this is Neurological Poison, if suffering long term Omega3 shortages (most people), as it’s ratio is 70% Omega 6 and 0.1% Omega 3. That is some major shortfall in thinking. Anyway, loved most of Sebi’s talks, maybe it came from a misguided follower.

Presque Vu

Presque vu (from French, meaning “almost seen”) is the sensation of being on the brink of an epiphany. Often very disorienting and distracting, presque vu rarely leads to an actual breakthrough. Frequently, one experiencing presque vu will say that they have something “on the tip of their tongue .”

In life, my focus often becomes searing, too often on folly, or distractions, but on occasions this ”fixation” is a great friend.

One fixation, was how to feed our daughter, once solids started, how to not undo all the strides Arya had made. We failed hopelessly, but Arya knew, she found Olives, she knew what they gave to her, yet her father had studied decades and failed to complete a great picture, until Arya compelled it, then gave it us when we scrambled in our minds dirt.

The smell (hexanol) compounds in Olive Oil, are hugely medicinal. The phenolic content is also medicinal, these are crucial factors, in the Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Sphincter all being stimulated to secrete, contract and function (Tryptophan, Cholecystokinin, Serotonin, Insulin et al). An essay on this core bio-chemistry will follow, suffice to say, it’s important and deeply complex stuff, Arya just knew:


Arya, of course, is not spouting the above, she is just feeling her way through things.

This similar theme, of Presque Vu, was found in Arya when we stimulated our friendly bacteria by making Kombucha. After months of this noble adventure, Daddy had become proficient, to the point everybody seemed to like my Kombucha, especially an Organic Apple, Carrot and Ginger second ferment blend.

When trying differing Green Teas, Sencha smooth, delicate. Others like Chun Mee more powerfully effervescent but also more acidic (Sencha for low fizz gently, Chun Mee for high fizz we had mostly settled upon), it was suggested out of the blue by Arya that using Artichoke may yield better results ”Ummm, I think it would be better if you used Artichoke Daddy”.

Daddy, being a man of considerable age and experience, nonchalantly entertained Aryas words, while my Ego dismissed this, as Arya after finding Olives, found Artichokes. So, naturally I listened and reflected that I would research, but was not sure the taste would be what we sought.

Then, to my astonishment (and, I really should have known better, by then), Arya knew this:

Malbaša et al. (2001) used the tubers of composite Jerusalem Artichoke(Helianthus tuberosus L.). They found that the drink obtained could be considered a dietary product because it had a low concentration of sugars after the fermentation process (28 °C/21 days) and the presence of inulo-oligosaccharides.


So, Arya yet again, knew or had the mind to hear, that qualities beyond my fathom, were inherent, in foods she was drawn to.

If experience hadn’t taught me otherwise, it would seem impossible.

The inulo-oligosaccharides, are very powerful sugar feeders of friendly bacteria!!! Our invisible resident, but endangered, Alchemists.

Results: Overall, nine original articles reported the effects of inulin on microbiome composition in adult humans, most of them being randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (n = 7)… The most consistent change was an increase in Bifidobacterium. Other concordant results included an increase in relative abundance of Anaerostipes, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, and a decrease in relative abundance of Bacteroides after inulin supplementation.


To note, research is more and more showing, the supplementation of Inulin and/or Pectin has great benefits to out resident Alchemical potency, the younger the person, the stronger or more enduring this recolonisation effect may be (on top of cutting back on processed sugars and oxygen stifling oils).

How was it possible? After researching years, decades, that my 4year old (at that time), knew much, much, better than me?!

Thank heavens she did. Slowly we are catching her up. These days, we share a Kombucha with dinner and a spoonful of Inulin (Cake mix, the girls call it!). Though I never did make the Kombucha with it!

Blessings have been showered upon us.

Jerusalem Artichoke Flower

Thank you Arya for bringing the knowing.

Elevated MUC1 and MUC5AC mucin protein levels in airway mucus of critical ill COVID-19 patients

Wenju Lu, Xiaoqing Liu, Tao Wang, Fei Liu, Airu Zhu, and Yongping Lin 

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit a spectrum of respiratory symptoms like cough and dyspnea.13 Airway mucus is an adhesive viscoelastic gel composed mostly of high-molecular-weight mucous glycoproteins and water, which is important in maintaining lung function and health, pathological mucus hypersecretion may cause airway obstruction and lead to respiratory distress. Mucin (MUC) glycoproteins are the major macromolecular components of mucus, which are classified into two major types: the gel-forming secreted MUC5AC and the membrane-tethered MUC1.4 Here, with an attempt to understand the lung changes, we sought to provide a delineation of the components of airway mucus from patients with COVID-19.

To clean airway obstruction, respiratory tract mucus was aspirated and collected via bronchoscopy from COVID-19 patients with a critical illness, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was applied via bronchoscopy to obtain cross-sectional images of the bronchiole. For healthy control, sputum was induced by inhaled hypertonic (3%) saline solution delivered with an ultrasonic nebulizer. After collection, sputum was processed as previously described for components analysis.5 Medical history, and clinical and laboratory data of the participants were extracted from electronic medical records. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (No. 2020-65). The requirement for informed consent was waived because the study was observational and the family members were in quarantine.

MUC5AC (sc-21701; Santa Cruz, Shanghai, China) and MUC1 (sc-6827; Santa Cruz) in airway mucus were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and MUC1-cytoplasmic tail (CT, clone EP1024Y; Abcam, Shanghai) levels were measured by Western blot analysis as described previously.5 The levels of MUC5AC and MUC1 were normalized to their average signal reading of a healthy control group.

A total of 16 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study, the clinical characteristics of the recruited subjects were shown in Table S1. There was no significant deviation in the distribution of age, or sex between the cohorts of case and control subjects. All the patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the intensive care unit because of low oxygenation index (199 ± 23 mm Hg), and 79% of them received mechanical ventilation. Blood laboratory tests showed elevated inflammatory indexes including leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 in most of the patients with COVID-19 (Table S2).

OCT indicated clear bronchiole in healthy controls (Figure 1A) and mucus retention in the bronchiole of patients with COVID-19 (Figure 1B). A volume of 1-8 mL white to gray sputum with high viscosity (Figure 1C) was aspirated from the respiratory tract of 16 patients with COVID-19. Induced sputum from healthy control was clear and transparent with low viscosity. Compared to healthy control, airway mucus from patients with COVID-19 had a higher level of MUC5AC (Figure 1D), MUC1 (Figure 1E), and MUC1-CT fragment (Figure 1F). However, there were no significant differences in the concentration of total protein, sodium, or chloride in the airway mucus from patients with COVID-19 when compared to healthy control (Table S3).

Representative cross-sectional images of bronchioles in (A) healthy and (B) critical ill COVID-19 patients were obtained with optical coherence tomography and bronchoscopy. C, Airway mucus aspirated by bronchoscopy. D, MUC1 and (E) MUC5AC protein levels as measured by ELISA, and (F) MUC1-CT level as measured by Western blot analysis in the airway mucus from COVID-19 patients and healthy control (HC). The levels of MUC5AC and MUC1 were normalized to their average signal reading of healthy control group. COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; CT, cytoplasmic tail; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; MUC, mucin

Although more than half of patients with COVID-19 presented with a dry cough,6 this study provided direct evidence showing mucus retention in the small airway of patients with COVID-19, and patients were not able to expectorate by themselves and need bronchoscopy aspiration to help them to clean respiratory tract. The sputum from these patients with COVID-19 was viscous, which is not surprising as MUC5AC levels are extremely high, hyperconcentration of this gel-forming MUC dehydrates airway surfaces and causes mucus adhesion, which may contribute to airflow obstruction and respiratory distress. Clearance of airway mucus is an important way to increase oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, bronchoscopy aspiration of airway mucus was used in all our patients to relieve hypoxia. In our center, all the 16 critical ill COVID-19 patients recovered and were discharged from hospitalization, which may attribute to our aggressive clearance of the respiratory tract. It is of note that bedside bronchoscopy may not be available in some hospitals as the medical resources are limited during the COVID-19 pandemic, carbocisteine has been reported to inhibit airway MUC5AC secretion, which could be used to reduce sputum viscosity and elasticity in patients with COVID-19. In addition, hydration of sputum by aerosolized hypertonic saline solutions or mannitol, and dilation of bronchi via aerosolized salbutamol may facilitate sputum expectoration.

MUC1 is a membrane-tethered MUC expressed on the apical surface of epithelial cells.78 Since MUC1-CT fragment is on the cytoplasmic side of the cells, the elevated sputum CT fragment in patients with COVID-19 could come from detached and disrupted epithelial cells, which is evidenced by the pathological findings of diffuse alveolar damage with fibromyxoid exudates and macrophage infiltration in the lung tissue from patients with COVID-19.9

The limitation of this study is that induced sputum was used in the control group to compare airway mucus aspirated via bronchoscopy from patients with COVID-19, because it was very difficult for the patients with COVID-19 to expectorate sputum even with hypertonic saline solution inhalation.

The findings may suggest that increased level of MUCs in the airway mucus may contribute to the high viscosity of airway mucus and sputum retention in the small airway of patients with COVID-19, airway mucus clearance may be indicated to relieve respiratory distress, and MUC5AC may serve as a target for mucolytic agents in treating COVID-19. And MUC1-CT may serve as an indicator reflecting the severity of airway and alveolar epithelial cell damage.


This study was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Project (2016YFC0903700 and 2016YFC1304102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81520108001 and 81770043), and grant specific for COVID-19 study from Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health. The authors would like to thank Dr Kwang Chul Kim (University of Arizona) for the invaluable assistance with the manuscript.


The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests.

Source : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.26406