Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala​


Anxiety disorders, such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder, are among the most common mental disorders.

Cognitive therapy helps in treating these disorders; however, many cases relapse or resist the therapy, which justifies the search for cognitive enhancers that might augment the efficacy of cognitive therapy.

Studies suggest that enhancement of plasticity in certain brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or hippocampus might enhance the efficacy of cognitive therapy. We found that elevation of brain magnesium, by a novel magnesium compound [magnesium-l-threonate (MgT)], enhances synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and learning and memory in rats. Here, we show that MgT treatment enhances retention of the extinction of fear memory, without enhancing, impairing, or erasing the original fear memory.

We then explored the molecular basis of the effects of MgT treatment on fear memory and extinction. In intact animals, elevation of brain magnesium increased NMDA receptors (NMDARs) signaling, BDNF expression, density of presynaptic puncta, and synaptic plasticity in the PFC but, interestingly, not in the basolateral amygdala.

In vitro, elevation of extracellular magnesium concentration increased synaptic NMDAR current and plasticity in the infralimbic PFC, but not in the lateral amygdala, suggesting a difference in their sensitivity to elevation of brain magnesium.

The current study suggests that elevation of brain magnesium might be a novel approach for enhancing synaptic plasticity in a regional-specific manner leading to enhancing the efficacy of extinction without enhancing or impairing fear memory formation.


Good Mourning – Which Bondages Today?

Lately, been contemplating washing our cups.

Each day, we wake, with a chance, a moment. We can try to let go daily.


Because, you only have room, for 8-12 thoughts, or things, in short term memory, before negative emotions may start burdening you, to release some, or transfer to long term).

So, each day, everyone in the world, our collective thoughts, this author believes, create tomorrows world, quite literally.

So, with mankind, as with us, if we allow Bondages, or, lumps to form, these are fragment items in memory (or likely to be pushed back to memory, to seek resolution), troubles may follow?

Now, you wake…

You only scared to die, when you ain’t living right, man. Talib Kweli.

If, your life pattern is such, you may have filled this memory space, in minutes, with junk thoughts ”Oh why do I have to get up”, ”Oh, I don’t like my job”, etc.

Many, still, watch ”The News”, or, read it, what 50% (at least) of that news is positive to your spirit? Or Negative, wearing you down? Are you learning from it, or, does your nervous system crave it? As you lived soo long absorbing fear, now it’s just you…

How positive is the news? How does the news make you feel?

Did you write the news? If not, you are welcoming someone else’s thought forms into your film, willingly?

Look at that, that feels to me, unburdened, beautiful, clean. How often is this News giving you inspiration?

Is that a wise choice, in these days of huge negative burdens being broadcast daily? Is your cup so full otherwise, of positivity, you can weather this and still radiate positivity?

You watched it over 3Years 3Months 3Weeks 3Days, you have ultimate reflective authority in your own being, nobody else.

Reflect on your patterns, are they serving you to grow, fill with positivity, or not? If not, can you not release them, give more space to nurture this positivity, your soul yearns?

So, if these heavy thoughts, cannot be addressed and resolved, we may fill our cup, with more than 50% Negative Thinking.

Personally, can only carry 4 thoughts, which aren’t positive, and my world starts delivering me that which I subconsciously project, very fine margins, though, one very powerful, may overshadow 7 weak, if you can carry 12 items, you have less sticky short term memory, maybe you can shoulder 6 negative, without this powerful 1? This is why faith or neuro linguistics (family, love memories) are vital, to most, faith beacons.

Oh, must check my social media, those pictures surely got more likes than my sisters/brothers/friends, this time.”

It is my feeling, if you wake, and greet each day with positivity, the world reflects this back into your life. Wake feeling negative, the world will deliver that as you are a divine, divining rod.

This same dynamic, is at play with broader mankind. Once 50% of the world is thinking negatively, this may more broadly become the ”Zeitgeist”. This has been apparent, since faith in whatever form (all religions, thought schools) fell to around this % the world has become tough, no?

Approach life, with a smile ready to share, the world will deliver you people ready to accept and reflect that smile back to you, growing that Egg.

Choose you bondages wisely, only very skilled humans, can bear many bondages, and, not become them?

“Break this tired old routine, I am a breathing time machine, I’ll take you all for a ride”… Why not make it a good one?

The Terton Who Stole My Rucksack

When travelling India, had a big Rucksack, and a small sports bag. After a couple of months or so, we were headed from Rajastan to Madras, so headed to Ahmedabad station.

Don’t recall the place, but the picture sets a tone for your mind…

At the station, we got on the train, placing our rucksacks on the ’Top Bunk’ to preserve our bed on the 50hour trip. Foolishly, it seemed on immediate reflection, I did not lock my rucksack to a bar.

Noticing there were Sikhs in the Cabin, I had moved out, to the single seats past the walkway, to have a cigarette, before we set out on our journey. Having grown to love the train journeys, as much or more than the time between, this was a nice moment, see India alive in all it’s glories, in the cabins (second class sleeper, every time) the stations, the country between stations. Here was my quiet teachings, and chaotic (food at stations, chi wallers).

Never saw quite this level of cool!

So, having had my cigarette, venture back to the cabin, to notice my rucksack has gone! Oh no, my stuff…

Bliss! No, really…

My friend and I run up and down the compartments, the train at this moment is pulling off. Damn it, was deeply upset, shaken, violated, my camera, we had already trekked in Kalash and other beautiful parts of Himalaya, seen amazing things, now would never be seen again.

Doubt my pictures were this good, double blessing! Seeing the good in bad!

However! This, once the anguish passed, was a huge blessing.

The thief was a Terton.

You see, the next 7-8months, I travelled free, only Sadhu’s and destitute had less than me…

Swam naked, just down there, the glacier waters are soo pure, soo close to the sun soo high. Another picture nobody should see!!! Such blessings!!!

This was my blessing, when we were travelling, moving to stations, others would be worn down, by the burden of ”carrying their things”, yet I had been freed, by the thief… others began to bicker, worry, stress, over their things, this was what I came to India for, freedom from things…

Should I wish this man/men be judged, or, rewarded? Rewarded.

Was this man, a thief, or a treasure revealer? Terton.

The negative spirits, are those you choose to carry with you, treasuring your bondage. This Spirit Being (it seemed impossible to disappear like that) gave me the gift of presence, maybe they knew I’d be too dense, to find it myself.

Be free on your journey, bondages clutter the vision of now, see the now whenever you can. Whilst travelling Pakistan, my sister was in the UK watching Nusrat Fatah Ali Khan singing, with our friend Nasa (of Rawalpindi heritage), nice symmetry.

3/3/3/3 The Great Neurological Clean Up

Everything in your life, older than this.

3Years, 3Months, 3Weeks, 3Days

You have had this in your life longer than a Degree.

Masters reach enlightenment in this time?

What have these things brought you?

Do they work for you, or, you for them, by keeping them and crowding your space?

Are they merit forming, or draining?

How much can you let go of?

Is it at the point of nothing, we may attain everything? feels so…

Cuddly Toy, Cuddly Toy… Life demonstrating the path

Back as a young boy, there was a TV show called ”The Generation Game”.


The Generation Game involved four couples where the two members of each team were a generation apart (hence the ‘generation’ bit of ‘The Generation Game’). The four couples split into two sets of two couples who faced off against each other. The winners faced each other in the final and the winners of the final played the conveyor belt game.

The winning couple would then get 60 seconds to watch items on ”The Conveyor Belt” and all they then recall, they won.

Cuddly Toy, Cuddly Toy!!!

So, where are we going here?


Break those words down, Mind, Fullness. If we work hard, our mind may stay focused, and, not start, or build, it’s own settling thoughts, into ’thought forms’, or ’lumps’ as recently heard described.

The reverse, if we work, but slack most time, most days, that idle mind is prone to creating nuisance, or, worse lumps.

So, back to ”The Generation Game”, as a young man, taking A level Psychology, we all did a ”Short Term Memory Test”, much the same as ”The Generation Game”, as many words recalled from 20 as you could. Mine was poor.

This was part of a test, related to short term memory capacity, and, more broadly the schema that stress will build, if you carry too many ’thoughts’ at once, you will start to drop other thoughts, at 8 or so items (12 in those of stronger short term capacity) the average person may start needing to either drop, or, transfer some into long term, to free mind space. Or, stress and confusion will follow, as we saw in the contestants as they struggled to recall from an over filled mind.

End of test

The method of pegging, association to another object, to free short term ’processing’ memory, allowed people to recall 4 packs of playing cards, when done to extreme (the world record holder, was an athletics fan, so each card he pegged against an Athletics time, etc. Giving him a mind map back to ’the memory’, without it cluttering his short term memory. For example, he would see 4 or 5 cards and align those to an Athletics time, he had in Long Term Memory, freeing this 4/5 item burden):

Steve Ovett : 800m- 1min 44Seconds 9Hundredths = Ace Hearts, 4Clubs, 4Spades, 9Diamonds…

In life, we can see this, in child neurological development, we start with 100B Neurons and need to shed half, to ”settle” in adulthood, release, this may be demonstrated crudely in Arya, my daughter, below;

Last year, at 8, she was fixated on Harry Potter, many things before, but this one was BIG, her mother had read all the books, she was/is too young for it, so we allowed up to Book4. Through the year she was fascinated, curious, seeking to reflect on what was ’fiction’ and what she wished to hold as possible, or real.

So, as Arya has previously had traumatic brain injury, the potential for external clinging and overloading is perhaps stronger, or my focus on averting this in her is anyway.

Arya knew all the Characters, their abilities and inter-relations. This was my ’Star Wars’, then in the new year, Arya let go completely of all Potter Bondage, to free herself.

Arya is presently enchanted by WolfWalkers, and, being a Wolf, she taught me about differences between dogs and huskies, just days ago as we saw one.

Feeding the brain, with that which it needs, helps this hugely. All forms of Omega3 are crucial (ALA,DHA,EPA), certain fats and animo acids, to produce the neurological balms. Magnesium to stop this ”Edge between physical and electromagnetic” becoming too sticky (these things are proportionately needed, depending on environment, dietary antagonisers etc).

Completely, Bruce, say what you see…

Back in the 1980’s life was much slower paced, it was much faster than the generation before, and has sped since. This speeding of time, or lessening of quiet time, has pronounced the need, to either keep the brain clean of bondages/lumps, too many thoughts, and, to keep the transmission matter fluid, with minimal stickiness.

The Generation Game, was a ”Fly on the wall” Documentary on Materialisms effect on the brain? We all laughed as these families tortured themselves, for illusory advancements?

Omega3/Electrons, Neuron shedding, Letting go. Why make changes, especially ’the change’ for women, soo difficult?

Thousands of years, and, three days

In the past week, I made some Orgonite, for the first time with the intention of being for my daughters.

It was beautiful, not as good qi as some, but soo proud was I…

2days later, take it to Sauna, to meditate, test it out…

Time slowed, mid-fumbling distraction, as it tumbled to the hard poolside floor.


Kung Fu Panda, Arya and Amber enjoy, why shouldn’t they?.

Drop it, smash it, this took a whole day to make (along with a couple of others), but that day, at the Sauna I inspired, just a little, two women who were dry in their hopes, and I was able to laugh about it, after a moments utter anguish, there was no internal tightening as it‘s only a thing, the event was immediately transmuted into more good for us, because the sadness did not stick.

The second lady, needed positive direction, so my mind was trawling ways to explain her greatness, that she was selectively choosing to caste as her foe. As my mind focused on this, I got up forgetting the piece on my lap, which led to it smashing, but it was worth smashing, to help this lady, of course.

Kids, when showing them and apologising, said “Oh well, it still looks kind of cool”, bless them, and it does, you can touch its insides now. Maybe there was a message for me here as well, to keep these safer and more hidden? But, the inspiration it seemed to induce, forces me to post and risk them being public.

This is the path, to know the reason and impermanent nature of all things. The second women, showed the piece and explained it had just been made for my daughter, she was really upset in that moment, then as I laughed it off, it showed her as well, the message that every single moment is a chance for teaching/learning, reacting better next time.

In years before, this would have really upset me, if my kids did it, it would have upset me, and, I would have struggled not to chastise them, fuel the bondages.

Making this stuff, has given me such challenge with a desire to create perfection, all it can be is a pretty big deal, that previously has eaten away my merit, when inevitably they are not, that this was my first ever pieces for my daughters, and, both are just not good enough feeling, yet it caused little stickiness to the loss, was a growthful experience, one which did not upset my delicate autonomic balance, lead to any sorrow cascade.

Such a set of messages, and learnings, from a simple accident. It created a profound sense of joy, the day was very special, as soo many are lately.

These moments are happening around all of us, right now, it’s our challenge not to form bondage. The experiences for most all, are very harsh and abrasive right now, but you are fully equip to handle anything, having held my first daughter, dead, for the first time, I know this, now able to celebrate her bravery in teaching us, my dear first child Isla.

Isla, was perfect. She taught us how to survive, then, flourish with Arya. She needed no lesson herself.

Rewritten, as accidentally deleted original. Better worded, perhaps.

Antidepressant-like effect of flaxseed secoisolariciresinol diglycoside in ovariectomized mice subjected to unpredictable chronic stress

December 22nd 2012

Xing Ma, Rui Wang, Xin Zhao, Chong Zhang, Jiao Sun, Jianxin Li, Lu Zhang, Tuo Shao, Lina Ruan, Liang Chen, Ying Xu, Jianchun Pan

Department of Pharmacology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China.


Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a predominant lignan in flaxseed, has antioxidant activity as a dietary supplement. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanism of flaxseed SDG when the ovariectomized mice were exposed to the unpredictable chronic mild stress procedure. Chronic stress induced the increases in immobility time in mouse model of despair tests, but administration with SDG (80 and 160 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days inhibited these behavioral changes caused by stress in both forced swimming and tail suspension tests. These doses that affected the immobile response did not affect locomotor activity. Moreover, the changes in the serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were also measured to explore the SDG-associated regulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis.

The results indicated that the chronic stress-induced increases in the serum corticosterone and ACTH were reversed by treatment with high doses of SDG. Chronic treatment with SDG also affected the body weight of mice and IL-6, IL1β levels in the frontal cortex. In addition, chronic stress procedure induced a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the frontal cortex of mice; while treatment with SDG reversed this reduction of BDNF. All these results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of flaxseed SDG in the ovariectomized mice might be related to their modulating effects on the neuroendocrine-immune network and neurotrophin factor expression.

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23263992/

Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis. – PubMed

Author information


Sixty percent of cases of clinical depression are considered to be treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Magnesium-deficiency causes N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) coupled calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury and neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression.

Oral administration of magnesium to animals led to anti-depressant-like effects that were comparable to those of strong anti-depressant drugs. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) magnesium has been found low in treatment-resistant suicidal depression and in patients that have attempted suicide. Brain magnesium has been found low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, an accurate means for measuring brain magnesium.

Blood and CSF magnesium do not appear well correlated with major depression. Although the first report of magnesium treatment for agitated depression was published in 1921 showing success in 220 out of 250 cases, and there are modern case reports showing rapid terminating of TRD, only a few modern clinical trials were found.

A 2008 randomized clinical trial showed that magnesium was as effective as the tricyclic anti-depressant imipramine in treating depression in diabetics and without any of the side effects of imipramine.

Intravenous and oral magnesium in specific protocols have been reported to rapidly terminate TRD safely and without side effects.

Magnesium has been largely removed from processed foods, potentially harming the brain.

Calcium, glutamate and aspartate are common food additives that may worsen affective disorders.

We hypothesize that – when taken together – there is more than sufficient evidence to implicate inadequate dietary magnesium as the main cause of TRD, and that physicians should prescribe magnesium for TRD. Since inadequate brain magnesium appears to reduce serotonin levels, and since anti-depressants have been shown to have the action of raising brain magnesium, we further hypothesize that magnesium treatment will be found beneficial for nearly all depressives, not only TRD.

Source : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19944540

Related (and updated to include this study) : Magnesium Mental Health Reviews

Who is to blame for addiction?

Through my life I have often pondered, why do some people seem unable to resist the lure of addictive substances, and, why do certain individuals succumb to addiction?

It always seemed that there must be more to it than, “that so-and-so is a bad apple”, which seems to often be the unthinking response of those who suffer at the hands of friends or family members addictive behaviours.

So why is it? Why do some young adults fall into one addiction, then another, often replacing drugs with adrenaline addictions, or sports, or eating?

It is often noted that certain people have an “addictive personality”, what does that mean though? Might it be deep seated nutritional deficiencies, which make the “personality” addictive?

Magnesium in addiction – a general view.

Nechifor M


Addiction is a dysregulation of brain reward systems that progressively increases, resulting in compulsive drug use and loss of control over drug-taking.

Addiction is a brain disease.

There is evidence that magnesium deficit is involved in addiction to various addictive substances (heroin, morphine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and others). Magnesium is involved in all the stages of addiction. Magnesium deficit enhances the vulnerability to psychoactive substance addiction. Stress and trauma reduce the brain magnesium level and at the same time favor addiction development.

In experimental studies, administration of magnesium while inducing morphine dependence in rats reduced the dependence intensity. Magnesium reduces the NMDA receptor activity and the glutamatergic activity. Because stress and trauma induce hypomagnesemia with increased vulnerability to addiction, magnesium intake by people who are under prolonged stress could be a way to reduce this vulnerability and the development of addiction to different psychoactive substances. 

Anxiety and depression appear to be associated with increases in drug-related harm and addictive substance use. Magnesium anxiolytic effect could be important for the antiaddictive action. Addiction is characterized by relapses. Magnesium deficiency may be a contributing factor to these relapses.

ChooseLife : As we can see clearly above, scientific studies show that Magnesuim deficiency has a crucial, central role in the etymology of addiction. So, if we unravel the web of fibres which form our actions, we can easily see that it is those who through their lives eat less foods bearing Magnesium, who are always going to become more susceptible to the slavery and bondage of addictions in their lives.

How can we blame the addict, when their body aches and yearns, for something to take away the unconscious strain that lack of Magnesium induces in the host?

To be raised on a diet lacking in Greens, which have plentiful chlorophyll, which has Magnesium at its core:

How can it possibly be a childs fault? that he/she were not nurtured to eat a plentiful supply of this vital mineral? Or these health supporting foods?

This is not to blame the parents, where is the support from mental health services? Where are the warning campaigns that excessive simple sugars, or deficiencies in Magnesium and Omega3, are heavily implicated in numerous mental health conditions?

Are addicts, very often, simply self medicating?

It’s time to stop blaming the blood trickling from societies wounds.

Related : http://chooselife.co.uk/index.php/2019/09/23/magnesium-mental-health-research-reviews/